Nasal congestion, difficulty breathing is one of the oldest complaints of humanity. Although this is not very important for some, others have a lot of difficulty because of these complaints.
Doctors examine the causes of nasal congestion in four sections, and sometimes there can be similar points between them. These common points increase especially in patients whose complaints are caused by more than one thing.
STRUCTURAL CAUSES In this class, disorders of the nose and the nasal septum, which consists of a thin cartilage and divides the nose into two separate parts, are examined. These disorders usually occur as a result of any accident in a person’s life. The accident may have occurred in childhood or may even have been forgotten. Seven percent of newborn babies may have nasal injury during birth. It is a fact that a person hits his nose at least once in his life. For these reasons, nasal deformities and septum deviations are very common causes. If these make breathing difficult, they can be surgically corrected. The most common cause of nasal congestion in children is the enlargement of the adenoid. This is a tissue that resembles a tonsil and is located behind the palate at the back of the nose. Children with this problem breathe loudly at night or even snore. In addition, these children constantly breathe through their mouths and have an expression of unhappiness on their faces. Even their teeth may be damaged. Surgical interventions to remove adenoids may be recommended. Other causes included in this category include nasal tumors and foreign bodies. Children tend to put small particles into their noses. These can be buttons, safety pins, toy pieces, peas and chickpeas. Be careful when you feel one-sided foul-smelling discharge. Because this can be a warning of a blocked nose by a foreign body. In this case, a doctor should be consulted.
INFECTION A normal person can have an average of one or two colds per year. This is more in young people and less in older people with a developed immune system. The common cold is a disease caused by viruses. Some viruses are transmitted through the air, mostly through the hand and nose. Once the virus settles in the nose, it causes the release of a chemical called histamine in the body. As a result of this substance, a significant increase is observed in the amount of blood going to the nose. As a result, the nasal membranes swell. On the other hand, the secretion of fluid from the nasal membranes also increases. Antihistamines and decongestants can be used to reduce these complaints. But the common cold goes away on its own over time. During viral infections, the resistance of the nose and sinuses to bacterial infections is reduced. This explains why nasal and sinus infections are common during the common cold. If the nasal discharge turns yellow or green from its clear appearance, this indicates bacterial infection and a doctor should be consulted. Sudden sinus infections include nasal congestion, a dark discharge, pain and tenderness in the cheeks and upper teeth, between and behind or above the eyes, depending on which sinus is affected. Chronic sinus infections may or may not cause pain. But nasal congestion and runny nose are constantly present. In some patients, structures called polyps develop from the sinuses. The disease can also spread to the lower airways, causing chronic cough, bronchitis and asthma. Acute sinusitis usually responds to antibiotic therapy, while surgical treatment is usually recommended for chronic sinusitis.
ALLERGY Hay fever is the name given to allergic rhinitis. allergy ; It is an extreme inflammatory response to a foreign body, pollen, dust mite, animal waste or some particles in house dust. Sometimes food also plays a role. Pollen is a problem in the spring or autumn. In addition, house dust can bother you all year round. The ideal treatment for this is to stay away from the things that cause the complaints. But often this is not practical. In allergic patients, as in the common cold, nasal congestion and runny nose occur as a result of particles that cause histamine release in the body. Antihistamine drugs can prevent the effect of histamine, thereby eliminating the complaints. Decongestants cause the nose to open by constricting enlarged blood vessels. The vast majority of antihistamines increase sleepiness, while decongestants act as a stimulant on the contrary. Therefore, using these drugs together would be the best choice.
WARNING It is very inconvenient for those who tend to sleep while using antihistamines, driving cars or working in dangerous jobs. Since decongestants increase heart rate and blood pressure, they should not be used in patients with high blood pressure, arrhythmia of the heart, glaucoma and difficulty in urination. Pregnant women should consult their doctor for any medication they will take. Corticosteroids (Cortisone) are clearly effective in many allergic patients, but should be used under the supervision of a doctor due to their known side effects. In addition, these drugs are also effective when used as a nasal spray, and this way of use is safer. Allergy injections are the most specific treatment and have a high level of success. Sometimes blood and skin tests are done to understand which substances the patient is allergic to. The doctor will determine the initial scheme of treatment. These will usually be in the form of injections. This treatment works by blocking human antibodies and preventing an allergic reaction. Many patients prefer injections because of the side effects of drugs. Patients with allergies are more prone to sinus infections.
Vasomotor Rhinitis Rhinitis means inflammation of the nose and nasal membranes. Vasomotor means pertaining to blood vessels. Nasal membranes have arteries, veins and capillaries capable of widening and narrowing. Normally, half of these vessels are open and half closed. However, if the person does heavy exercise, the secretion of stimulating hormones (adrenaline) increases. Adrenaline causes blood vessels to constrict. As a result, the membranes contract, the airway opens and the person breathes more easily. The opposite of this develops in an allergic attack or when the person is exposed to cold. The blood vessels dilate and the nose becomes congested. In addition to allergies and infections, some other causes also cause the nasal vessels to dilate, leading to vasomotor rhinitis. These include stress, insufficient thyroid function, pregnancy, excessive or prolonged use of certain blood pressure medications, birth control pills, and decongestant medications. At the beginning of all these reasons, nasal congestion is temporary and reversible. That is, if the cause is removed, the disease will be cured. In addition, if it lasts long enough, this time the blood vessels will lose their elasticity and the event turns into an irreversible situation. They look like varicose veins. When the patient lies on his back or turns to one side, his lower parts fill with blood.