The balance of male and female population in the world is very close. Despite the population balance, there is a difference between male and female employees in business life. Gender stereotypes support this difference and widen the size of the difference between female employees and male employees. However, the preservation and development of the dynamism of feminism movements, the fact that states move away from gender-based judgments for the country’s economy is an important situation for female employees. Increasing the awareness of women, their opposition to the past-based norm values created for them, their desire to address their independence are important for changing the perspectives on the concept of women in the World. Negative values, which are intertwined with the female gender, and the systems of thought that women are passive and powerless, are losing their influence today. Women are more dynamic in business life and they undertake big projects with more risky work. Women’s entrepreneurship opportunities support the expansion of women’s sphere of influence. Concepts expressing strength such as risk, power and authority are not only related to the male gender. The interconnected boundaries of power and gender, where women can be strong and assertive, are now changing. It is not the right approach for women to stay in the domestic order, to raise children as the main caregiver, to experience a male-dominated and male-dominated life offered by the masculine structure. Supporting women’s personal rights and freedoms is important both for women and for the country’s economy.
In this study, the position and development of women’s entrepreneurship in the world order has been evaluated. It is necessary to increase the number of women entrepreneurs by being included in the field of understanding and awareness of women’s entrepreneurship. The definition of entrepreneurship, women’s entrepreneurship in the world and its historical development, the structure of women’s entrepreneurship in the world will be examined with examples from the best women entrepreneurs in the world.
1) Definition of Entrepreneurship
The first place where the term entrepreneurship was used is France. It was previously used for individuals with extroverted identity characteristics such as adventurers and researchers. With the development of the industrial field over time, the usage area of the term entrepreneurship has developed. This development has started to be used for individuals who can take risks and try to reach larger groups by managing the risk. Entrepreneur wants to expand his reach by aiming to create a brand for himself or his company by integrating his knowledge in the field of finance with his business ability. In short, entrepreneur; It is the person who produces goods and services by analyzing production factors effectively with the most up-to-date techniques and information (Bozkurt 2011:3-4).
2) Women’s Entrepreneurship in the World and Its Historical Development
The term entrepreneurship, which emerged in the Middle Ages, developed by adding new concepts until the end of the 20th century. The intensity of these developments was mostly on the male gender. Over time, it has been observed that women are in business life. The labor force participation of women in the world started with the industrial revolution that took place in England in the first half of the 18th century and spread to the world (Altun 2008: 2). The search for rights of women, which started with the effects of the first feminism movement in the 19th and early 20th centuries, has set an example for the formation of today’s concept of women entrepreneurs. Women’s previous lack of rights, women’s passive thoughts brought by gender stereotypes were creating obstacles for the development of women’s entrepreneurship in the world. 1. The suffrage supported by the feminism movement supported women to emphasize the idea of being equal with men. Women who gained the right to vote did not accept that they are discriminated against in business life because they are women. For example, it is an important event that in 1845, 1500 female workers in a spinning mill in the USA, Pennsylvania, went on strike for a long period of one month due to the demands for reducing the working week to six working days and the working day to 10 hours.
Having a business established on behalf of himself in a place outside the home, working in a business alone or with other people he employs, or establishing a partnership as the owner, contacting various public and private institutions regarding the business, making plans for the future of the business, obtaining income from the business She is a woman who has a say over her earnings, investment and usage areas, and who undertakes all the risk on behalf of her business (Tamer, 2013).
However, with the internalization of social patterns created on women, women could not play a dynamic role in the field of entrepreneurship. The idea that women should do more standard and passive work and leave more important and bigger jobs to men is a common social stereotype in many societies. Based on this, women who took their own competence and worked did not take risks and could not be included in the category of entrepreneurs. Women were more committed to the domestic responsibilities created on women and the concepts that made women passive and brought by the culture.
Until the Industrial Revolution, while the duties of women were clearly determined as housework or handicraft, there were significant changes in the place of women in society in the following periods. The number of women participating in the workforce has increased, the number of working husbands and wives has increased, and single mothers have begun to be seen more frequently (Tamer, 2013). The perspectives of women who have been thrown out of business life are improving over time. Women who want to ensure their financial independence and increase their financial income have started to take steps in entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship, which has developed especially since the 1980s, has been included in the fields of interest of women as well as men. The number of women who are included in the concept of business life in the world is increasing day by day. The number of female workers, which has increased in numbers, has come to an important place in business life as it started to represent a large part of the population.
2.1) Women Entrepreneurship
Women’s entrepreneurship is a subject that has been emphasized and studied extensively in recent years. Since development cannot be imagined without women, it is important for women to take a more active and effective role in economic life for the development and real modernization of our country (Arat 1993:1).
2.2) Definition of Women’s Entrepreneurship
After the 1970s, women’s breakthroughs in entrepreneurship accelerated in the world. Obstacles in front of women who participate more dynamically in business life, limited women’s talents and skills, the discrimination between men and women in terms of wages disturbed women, and the narrow limits of working hours that restricted women’s life outside of work are important factors in women’s stepping into entrepreneurship. The efforts of women to gain experience in business life and to prove that they can reach high positions coincide with the 1980s, and since the 1990s, it has been possible to see women in higher positions and positions that promise success in male-dominated sectors (Liman 1993: 195).
We Can Evaluate Women’s Entrepreneurship in 4 Main Groups
*Female worker or civil servant
* Women who practice their profession as a result of education
2.3) The Importance of Women Entrepreneurship
The validity of the masculine structure created in the world begins to change over time as women show their presence. Women are more likely to work for their own needs and expenses rather than taking care of men. Women are willing to turn their thoughts and labor into economic gain. These desires of women, who make up a large part of the population, support the economy of the country they are in economically. A government needs working citizens in order to maintain its existence and keep its welfare level high. The entrepreneurship of women, the risks they take and the universality values they reach are very important for governments. The increase in working women provides a lot of support to the development of the country’s economy. Thus, women’s entrepreneurship represents a very important place with the value they add both to the expansion of women’s personal rights and freedoms and to the country’s economy.
3) The World’s Best Women Entrepreneurs
With the implementation of supportive policies against women in the world, the way of women’s entrepreneurship is being opened day by day. Thanks to the new developments experienced, many women are able to establish their own businesses and come to the world of entrepreneurship. Women’s entrepreneurship, which progresses to savings, has helped support the entrepreneurial spirit of other women, thanks to the women who have achieved good results in practice. Although the front of women’s entrepreneurship is hampered by gender inequalities, the life experiences of women who have set themselves a goal and achieved success are a lesson for most women. It is impossible to stand in the way of a woman focused on success. Although women face gender discrimination all over the world, they continue to shine in the male-dominated business world by acting with determination and faith.
Coco Chanel was born in France in 1883. He was born into a poor family. She grew up in an orphanage and learned to sew while growing up. He expanded his business with his designs and the value he gave to his work and became a world brand.
JK Rowling: She became the first female author to become a millionaire with her Harry Potter book series, which she wrote after being a single mother with a difficult life.
Sara Blakely: Sara Blakely, who used to sell fax machines from door to door, became involved in socks entrepreneurship with a small capital as a result of her own efforts. She took care of all the issues that needed attention, from her company’s logo to marketing techniques, and she became the world’s youngest self-made woman.
Mary Kay Ash: Married at the age of 17, and after her husband left for the military, she stepped into business to take care of her 3 children. In 1963, she couldn’t stand the fact that her male employees, who she trained, were promoted and not given the opportunity, and she started her own business. She wrote a book to help women get involved in the male-dominated business world, and she realized that she created the perfect marketing plan as a result of the book.
Cher Wang: He is one of the leading entrepreneurs in the world of technology. After years of producing mobile phones for others, she founded HTC and made a million-dollar fortune.
Oprah Winfrey: Having witnessed many pains in her childhood, Oprah changed her life by stepping into the world of television. He presented the most watched talk show program in 1983 and created a great fortune for himself.
Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw: He became president of Kiran Biocon Limited, which deals with biotechnology. Starting his business in his own garage, Kiran opened the company to the free market, becoming the second Indian company to reach $1 million on its first trading day.
Tory Burch: Tory, who entered Forbes’ most powerful women list in 2015, established her brand in her kitchen and became known worldwide.
Gisele Bündchen: Beginning her entrepreneurship with environmental studies, writing, photography, she created a photobook with 300 pictures and earned a high profit from its sale.
Debbi Fields: Debbi turned her cookie recipe into a million-dollar company.
Women’s entrepreneurship studies are a structure that accumulates over time. The fact that women behave in accordance with the stereotypes imposed by the society and are deprived of the workforce causes both a gender gap and a fluctuation in economic power. The contribution of women in business life to the country’s economy is increasing day by day. Beautiful and risky ideas are not findings of the concept of man imposed by society. Your development and the changing world order do not progress based on physical strength. Today, brain power is more important than physical labor. Separating a balance of power between men and women only helps to adapt the past tense pattern to the present and to come back from wrongdoing. The business life, which is based on intelligence, offers a space for women to show themselves. Entrepreneurship policies based on intelligence are very important in terms of universality. We see from the examples of women who have proven themselves and who increase the financial investments of their entrepreneurship to high levels that the success of women entrepreneurs is high when the social patterns that veil or hinder women’s minds are removed. Women’s entrepreneurship should be supported by the state and society. The new concepts that women reach by making a difference trigger the level of economic and social welfare in a positive way. The positive results of women’s entrepreneurship around the world are too numerous to ignore. They should continue to follow these developments and women who want to activate their entrepreneurial spirit should be supported and lead to their development. The renewed world order should be followed in order to end the discrimination between men and women. The basis for different entrepreneurship ideas that will be created by making business lines suitable for women should be prepared. Instead of being shaped by the old thoughts brought by the past, the discriminatory attitudes that trigger gender discrimination should be addressed and changed by being more involved in our daily life with innovations, making up half of the world’s population. Because men and women are equal. The opportunities given to women entrepreneurs and the incorporation of unknown new concepts into daily life should be supported.