Who is Carl Gustav Jung?


Carl Gustav Jung is a psychoanalyst with roots in medicine and psychology. It has preserved its place in today’s psychology and psychiatry with its original scientific contributions such as psychological typing, theory of complexes and word association test. However, it is the work of life that makes Jung a school and examines the works in the field of symbology and the dynamics and phenomena of the (personal/common) unconscious with its derivatives reflected in all human sciences. This contribution has led to changes and transformations in a wide range of fields from anthropology to theology, from psychology to philosophy, from ethnology to sociology, and even predicted and proposed new expansions (eg synchronicity) in extreme natural sciences such as quantum physics.

The turning point of his career was the crossing of his paths with Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), the anti-spiritual spirit of the period, who was fascinated by his psychodynamic teaching. Later, he found his theory and practice restrictive and reductionist and broke off his relationship with this great master. The meeting and separation of two great minds has been very noisy and productive. CG Jung cannot be described as a student of Freud, a marvel of modernity, as is always assumed; Jung does not owe his existence to him; but it cannot be denied that she learned a lot from her relationship with him. Although they seem to complement each other, Jung’s gnostic-idealistic philosophy of life is – fundamentally – the antithesis of the progressive Freudian worldview and hence the psychotherapeutic solution constructs. It is precisely for this reason that when he was about to surpass it, he fell far behind and this regression expanded the definition of “Spirit” beyond Freud’s teachings. Jung is “more” than Freud; He is the person who says that insanity is too fundamental to be defined by consciousness as insanity, and that makes us wonder at our “forced” sanity. He is the Pinel of the mysteries of the “Soul”. However, CG Jung is not as “enlightened” as Pinel, who unleashes the mentally ill; not a consciousness fanatic at all. He has always respected the dark; He emphasized that there is no light without darkness. The twilight formed by the intertwining of light and darkness is never a mediocre grayness in him: CG Jung’s twilight is an illusion created by the rapid transitions of absolute light and absolute darkness. It is because of the bewilderment and indeterminacy/insecurity of these transitions, and therefore of these transitions, that Jung has a side that is frightening and contrary to the modernist “rational” mind.

We can describe Jung’s life-line as he seeks to connect the loneliness, isolation, and at the same time the chosenness, which he feels in the singularity of his subjective world, to which he has surrendered to its power, wealth and complexity since childhood, to a human (ness) objectivity that he envisions. This effort connects the singular and subjective Carl Gustav Jung, on the one hand, to inanimate beings through animate nature, on the other hand to the Spirit and the image of God. The intermediate stage is culture and the collective unconscious towards both sides, and the intermediate elements are the archetypes. Every world view, which includes cosmological/cosmogenic systematizations, philosophical theories, all kinds of scientific expansions, as well as psychological theories and practices, is “the view of the eyes that see that world”. The starting point of the therapy schools, which theorize and institutionalize problem-solving methods with the claim of general validity, is always a subjective hope/prediction/effort for distress, diagnosis and treatment.

The main purpose of human life is self-healing, that is, to make up for one’s own shortcomings, resolve their conflicts, and lessen the suffering of their bruises. To achieve this is to “complete” the world again and with itself in its center, that is, as its own world: This is the action we call “creativity”, which will never end, that is, it will never reach its horizon: “The act of completing the world”…
At that moment I had a clear grasp of the cosmic meaning of consciousness. ‘Art completes what nature leaves unfinished,’ say alchemists. I, that is, a human being, with a hidden creativity, gave the world an objective existence and stamped it as perfect. It is said that only the creator can do such a behavior. Man is necessary for the completion of creation because man himself is a second creator and it is he who gives the world its objective existence. It is man who creates objective existence and meaning, and man has taken his indispensable place in the supreme process of existence. (Jung 2001: 262-3). While declaring himself as a second creator, that is, man, responsible and responsible/obligatory for creating meaning, Jung senses the traces of a worldview in which man and God are intertwined, of course, fed by Christian mythology and the image of Jesus Christ.

CG Jung emphasized that individual liberation would be possible through integration in a “religious” center, while CG Jung, as the father of ideas that would be excluded with the accusation of “heretics” and as a guide in the deepenings considered allied against the superficiality and rationalist bigotry of modernity, by all existing religions. objectively-spontaneously (“Selbst”) says it can find and/or realize:

…Because “God” is not a myth, it is the manifestation of Godliness in man. (Jung 2001: 342). However, these individual/subjective centers actually flow into a single common centre. Therefore, Jung’s most subjective interpretation ultimately leads to an anonymous objectivity. It is entwined with a paradoxical manoeuvre. Jungian teaching: While screaming out his own subjective myth, a person realizes that the objective weight of matter and time has collapsed on him while he becomes original by moving away from anonymity. Centrifugal forces are also the source of centripetal gravity. Perhaps it is this contraction towards the common (and only) center that causes CG Jungian teleology to be perceived as a truly modernistic religion, the inward migration of the superficial layers, the absoluteness of the shell gathering in a core in that all-engulfing black hole that is everything.

The power image of the black hole metaphor finds its antithesis in the “all-encompassing expansion”, infinity, which contains an absolute like itself. Meeting in the Absolute cannot be anything but one and the same; because it is the absolute one. The absolute-center, which Jung would feel attracted to, as an anomalous “Central-European Christian mystic”, is the image of the one and infinite God that man carries within himself:
“All my thoughts are centered on God, like planets orbiting the sun. If I deny this gravitational force, I would be committing the greatest sin.” (Jung 2001: 13)

Of course, Jung is also a scientist: his effort to centralize all kinds of objects and actions in the reign of consciousness reflects a concern of the modern mind. By identifying this motive at the starting point of Jungian psychology, we can also attribute the title of a hero of modernity to him: The important thing is to separate himself from the unconscious material by attributing personalities to it, and at the same time, to enable them to connect with consciousness. This is the way to destroy their power. It is not so difficult to give them an identity, as they have some independence and unique identity. Accepting their independence is also a job in itself, but the manifestation of the unconscious like this allows us to manage it in the best way possible. (Jung 2001: 199) This explanation is the explanation of the modernist discourse aimed at expanding the perception field of consciousness and increasing the effectiveness of the self on objects; however, it approaches spiritual contents in a way that we can now describe as postmodern. By placing his own consciousness (human consciousness) at the center, Jung went beyond maintaining a modern attitude. He set up his spiritual contents -which he defined as archetypes as “numinos” designs formed in relation to external realities – as separate, independent units of existence, autonomous sources of power and attraction: There were things in the soul that I did not produce. They produced themselves and continued their lives. Philemon symbolized a power outside of me. We used to talk to him in my fantasies. He used to say that I thought I was generating the thoughts, but actually thought that thoughts were like animals in a forest, people in a room, or birds in the air. ‘When you see people in a room, you don’t think you created them or that you are responsible for them, do you?’ he would add. It was he who taught me spiritual objectivity and soul truth. (Jung 2001: 195)

The “Analytical Psychology” school, which Jung offers its theoretical basis and focuses on archetypology and unconscious dynamics, works with images and pictures due to the nature of archetypes. The ambiguity and ambiguity of images differ from the self-evidence of words that carry a much more specific and sharp expression. Images evoke childhood and childishness. The reality anchor of images goes back much deeper than words. And this includes an acceptance of the word, which is for dominance over things and situations, different from the obsession and compulsiveness where everything can be put into words. The fear of the speaker for control can lead to the underestimation and disdain of the painting with the labels of infantile, primitiveness, ambiguity and immaturity. However, the function of archetypes is not to create biological-evolutionary perception, sensation, interpretation and reaction schemes specific to the “existing” species, such as crystallization foci. Archetypes are phenomena that appear, manifest and force themselves at the touch points of those schemas. The power of archetypes is not self-evident; They are images of a place and situation and have a compulsion arising from that place and situation itself. This fact makes them even more indispensable, even if it seems paradoxical. Because their power is not their own. Existential unfolding are necessary phenomena of totality. They are embodiments of main action schemes and stances. Because we live in a particular world that has helped shape our minds and established our main spiritual conditions, we have to stay within the confines of our innate nature. Therefore, we are connected to this world with our whole selves and thoughts. (Jung 2001:304)

Jung’s psychosocial development environment, which was also open to pagan inputs, probably contributed to the formation and development of the idea of ​​”archetype”. It is clear that the spiritual contents (archetypes) that are embodied and filled with the “numinosum”, that is, with an incomprehensible mysterious power, are obviously similar to the “externalized” mysterious forces that the shaman resorts to, aids or conflicts with in all kinds of problems related to man and nature. Jung experienced every method he predicted and suggested for the treatment of humanity, in the same way as he experienced in the ecstasy of a shaman, in the relationship he established with archetypal powers, and when he returned to the dimension of common consciousness, he shared his experiences in scientific fiction. Jung’s definition of the “wounded healer” in describing the function of the psychotherapist is the repetition of the therapeutic/regulatory function of the shaman at a higher and integrated level of consciousness. Unlike the “unpretentious” “consciousness” of modern times, in the awareness of the weakness and limitation of the self, the splendor and multiplicity of the Spirit, Jung’s clinching stance as the “Shaman of the Objective Spirit” seems even more modern in postmodern times.

The core of CG Jung’s theoretical fiction is the “individuation process”, a singular humanity proposal, a process of integration. The process of unification is an adventure of development, growth, and opening toward Spirit, which is present in every human being as a teleological possibility, though often unconsciously. Psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, in Jung’s sense, is the stimulation of this possibility, the opening of blockages, the facilitating of the flow. Individual awareness, which is both the goal and the achievement of the unification process, is ultimately a presentation and contribution to the common consciousness of all humanity. With this function, we can attribute the touchstone of Jungian ethics to the unification process. The basic mechanism of the unification process is the mutual interaction of conscious and unconscious. The references Jung refers to when describing one’s great journey towards one’s own center are archetypal symbols. Within the scope of the unification process, which is long and difficult, with rich alternatives in its decorations, but which inculcates necessary transitions and transformations in its stages, the archetypal element that the individual must first meet and integrate is the “shadow”: the lower level part of the personality. All individual and collective psychic elements that are not allowed to express themselves in the course of life because they cannot cope with the chosen consciousness, and therefore unconsciously try to create opposition and form a highly independent ‘faction’. In dreams, the shadow figure is always of the same gender as the dreamer. (Jung 2001: 19).

With the reflection of consciousness in the shadow, the darkness is taken into the light. At a later stage, an encounter in which the otherness between the sexes will also be resolved and overcome is decisive: the male unconsciously meets the female image (“anima”), which takes place as an integral element:

This bisexuality is a biological fact. Every man carries within him an eternal image of a woman that does not belong to this or that woman. This image is essentially unconscious and is a hereditary element of the original female form in the organic system of the man, namely an archetype. This original picture consists of an accumulation of all the ancestral experiences of femininity and the traces left by femininity until then. Since the image is unconscious, it is unconsciously projected onto the loved one. This is what causes passion or hatred. (Jung 2001: 16) The soul image (“animus”) that the woman will integrate is masculine; What Jung said about the man, mutatis mutandis, also applies to the woman.

The process of unification/integration unites and integrates what the sex separates/segregates and reflects to the opposite sex. In the adventure of getting to know himself (awareness), the traveler of life increases and becomes richer with many archetypal encounters – under optimal conditions. However, the ultimate goal of the unification/integration process is the “Soul”, which is the center of the soul; the immanent and transcendent self (“Selbst”). Integration is always accompanied by transformation. The person who has assimilated the other in himself cannot remain the same; A staggering change in his worldview and model, and therefore in his life, is inevitable. Jung is one of the few “open” auteurs whose theories you can directly parallelize with life experience and verify this with their own words. The reason why I am only using excerpts from his memoir, which consists of what he said – directly – about himself in this article, is because I want to emphasize this characteristic of him: When I look back and review what I went through during the time I was dealing with fantasies, it seems like a very powerful message came to me at that time. There were things in the images that interested others as well as me. That’s why I’ve given up on being my own. I had decided that I had no right to this, and from that moment on, my life began to belong to everyone. The information I was interested in and sought was not included in the science of that period. I had to go through the first experiences, and the results of my experiences had to be deeply rooted in the ground of reality. Without this, my effort would have remained an unrealizable subjective assumption. As a result, I have dedicated myself to the service of the spirit. The only way to get me out of that mess was my science. Without him, the material I’ve acquired would trap me like swamp flowers and those giant vines would suffocate me. I took care to understand each image and everything in my spiritual repertoire, and to classify them as scientifically as possible. (Jung 2001: 204)

Jung CG: Memories, Dreams, Thoughts (“Erinnerungen, Traeume, Gedanken von CG Jung”, ed. Aniela Jaffe, 1961), trans. Iris Kantemir, Can Publications, Istanbul, 2001.

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