Along with the increasing prevalence of obesity all over the world and in Turkey, the incidence of chronic diseases is also increasing. Among the factors affecting the prevalence of obesity; heredity, age, gender, food consumption and eating habits, lifestyle and/or habits, socio-economic and cultural factors and physical activity level. In parallel with socio-economic development, environmental and behavioral changes are an important factor in increasing the prevalence of obesity, especially in developed countries.
Although it is more common in industrialized countries, obesity prevalence is more common in middle and high income groups in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization, the prevalence of overweight is expected to be 1.35 billion and obesity prevalence to be 573 million in 2030. According to the results of Turkey Nutrition and Health Survey-2010 (TBSA-2010); the prevalence of overweight is 34.6% and the prevalence of obesity is 30.3% in all adult individuals. According to the results of Turkey Demographic and Health Survey-2013 (TNSA-2013); In women between the ages of 15-49, the prevalence of overweight was 28.6%, and the prevalence of obesity was 26.5%.
WHICH FACTORS AFFECT THE WEIGHT GAIN THE MOST?
Nutrition: Among the explanations put forward as the cause of obesity, the most obvious one is the consumption of food more than normal. Nutrition plays an important role in maintaining a positive energy balance. The ratio of nutrients that make up the energy (kcal) we need to take into our body is important. There is a positive relationship between high-fat diet consumption and obesity. Similarly, the high rate of simple carbohydrates in the diet causes an increase in body weight by converting and storing excess energy into fat in the body. Consuming fatty-carbohydrate foods more than normal during and between meals, skipping meals, eating fast and consuming excessive alcohol paves the way for the formation of obesity.
Environment: Although the effects of genetics in the development of obesity have been proven, environmental factors play an important role in the increase in the incidence of obesity in recent years. Nutrition, physical activity, smoking and/or alcohol use are among the environmental factors affecting obesity.
Familial and ethnic factors: familial and ethnic factors; It plays a role in the etiology of obesity by directly affecting food choice, nutrition pattern, and activity level. There are individual, familial and social differences in energy intake and expenditure. It is known that genetic factors may be at the root of this situation, and cultural habits are also an important factor in nutrition. The difference in total energy intake, meal frequency, and materials used in food cooking methods (spices, oils, etc.) of different ethnic groups prove this situation.
Chemical environment: As a result of uncontrolled industrial production, air, water and soil are polluted with chemicals. Individuals are exposed to these chemicals without realizing it. Chemicals are also stated to cause obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Stress: Different types of stress, especially emotional stress, can cause obesity. It has been reported that emotional stress causes depression and an increase in body weight is observed in a significant proportion (10-20%) of patients with depression. It is also known that seasonal depression causes an increase in body weight in individuals. This type of depression is especially common in northern countries that benefit less from sunlight during the winter months. With the covid-19 virus that emerged in 2020, we, as the whole world, spent long months in which we were inactive and stressed by staying at home. This situation caused an intense increase in weight and stress in people. For this reason, we can give as a good example that stress due to covid-19 has an effect on obesity.
Endocrine and metabolic diseases: It has been suggested that endocrine diseases may be the cause of obesity. Thyroid diseases in particular are associated with obesity. However, hypothyroidism, one of the thyroid diseases, causes difficulty in body weight loss rather than obesity. Thyroid replacement therapy applied to these patients increases the effectiveness of diet and exercise in the treatment of obesity. Cushing’s syndrome, a disease characterized by an increase in endogenous glucocorticoids, is the most common cause of endocrine obesity.
Intestinal microbiota: Intestinal microbiota is one of the areas that has been widely studied in recent years. Intestinal microbiota is effective in metabolic events in the body through different biological ways. Recent studies have shown that microbiota can affect energy homeostasis. One of the effective mechanisms is the increase in energy destruction from the diet.
In particular, Bacteroidetes type bacteria regulate the absorption of nutrients, while Firmicutes type bacteria are effective in the absorption of fatty acids. The proportions of these bacteria vary in obesity. While the ratio of Firmicutes bacteria increases, the ratio of Bacteroidetes bacteria decreases.
TRUE KNOWN FAULTS IN NUTRITION
➢ Bread makes you gain weight
➢ Lose weight by drinking water
➢ If you skip a meal, you lose weight
➢ Herbal tea blends weaken
➢ Lose weight by drinking lemon or grapefruit juice on an empty stomach in the morning
➢ Box milk is unhealthy
➢ Olive oil does not make you gain weight
➢ The healthiest oil is olive oil, you can drink it even on an empty stomach
➢ Do not be afraid of meat, be afraid of fruit
➢ It also weakens on its own
➢ Drinking a lot of soda weakens
➢ Cutting bread, rice, pasta weakens
➢ Food additives cause cancer
➢ Carbohydrates and proteins should not be consumed together in the diet.
➢ If you quit smoking, you gain weight quickly.
➢ Light products can be consumed unlimitedly during the weight loss program.
➢ Sugar-free foods are calorie-free
Today, there is a great amount of information pollution in both social media and printed publications about food and nutrition. The reason why people worry about what to eat and what not to eat is due to the misdirection of people who do not know about the subject and who are raised by the media. Public awareness of nutrition should be measured. Information pollution, which has become one of the biggest problems of today, should be eliminated. Consumers should be made aware of obtaining the right information from the right expert source.
SO HOW MANY KG SHOULD THE RIGHT WEIGHT LOSS IN 1 MONTH BE?
According to the World Health Organization; It is the healthiest to lose 0.5 grams to 1 kg of weight per week. This equates to 2 to 4 kg per month. The most important thing to lose weight is fat loss in our body.
Rapid weight loss in a short time leads to water and muscle loss instead of fat loss. Not a fast weight loss diet, but a healthy eating plan that you follow throughout your life is very important.
A correct weight loss process creates 80% fat loss in the body and 20% muscle loss, while rapid weight loss creates 50% fat loss in the body and 50% muscle loss.
In general, such nutrition plans should be prepared individually according to your lifestyle and social activities. So it should be personal. In this case, the body shape can be maintained, continuity can be ensured and a healthier life can be possible.