What is Yellow Spot Disease (Age-Related Macular Degeneration)?

Age-related changes in our bodies pave the way for the formation of some diseases. yellow spot diseaseknown as macular degenerationis one of them. macula It is the name of the place in the center of the retina, which is the nerve layer of our eye, also called the yellow spot. We do most of our day-to-day tasks, such as driving, reading, recognizing faces, watching television, thanks to the detailed vision formed by the macula. When a disease occurs in our macula (yellow spot) our central view We become impaired and find it difficult to perform tasks that require detailed vision. In macular degeneration, age-related changes in our macula damage the visual cells and impair our vision.

Who gets yellow spot disease?

The most important risk factor for macular degeneration is advancing age . Therefore, elderly people are most at risk. Apart from this, family history, hypertension and heart disease and cigaret are other known risk factors. Yellow spot disease in developed countries most common blindness one of the reasons. As of 2020, it is thought that there are around 200 million yellow spot patients in the world.

Are there different types of macular degeneration?

There are two types of macular degeneration. These are wet type and dry type yellow spot disease.

Dry type yellow spot disease: 90% of the patients are dry type. As a result of the accumulation of waste material in the macula, damage to the visual cells occurs. Vision loss occurs at a very slow rate, over many years. Dry type macular degeneration can sometimes revert to wet type.

Wet type yellow spot disease: Although 10% of the patients are in this group, the main serious vision loss is observed in the wet type. under retina abnormal vesseldevelopment of the retina bleeding and fluid buildup It is possible. This bleeding and fluid damages retinal cells and causes vision loss. Wet-type vision loss develops suddenly and progresses rapidly.

 

What are the symptoms of yellow spot disease?

most common symptom is a decrease in vision . bodies curved vision For example, it is an important indication in seeing the door edges as curved rather than straight. Apart from these, there may be complaints such as needing more light when reading, seeing colors pale, seeing shadows or dark spots on objects. patients in recognizing facescan be forced.

Who should consult an ophthalmologist?

Anyone with the above symptoms should consult an ophthalmologist as soon as possible, especially if they are over the age of 50. Apart from this, people with a family history of macular degeneration and a history of smoking are advised to have an eye examination, even at an earlier age.

What tests are performed in the diagnosis of macular degeneration?

After the routine eye examination, the pupils are dilated with drops and the back of the eye (macula) is examined with special lenses. If yellow spot disease is suspected, in cases where the ophthalmologist deems it necessary, eye angiographyand optical coherence tomography Diagnosis is confirmed by OCT-eye tomography examination. Response to treatment and follow-up of the disease is also done by OCT examination.

What is the square paper test (Amsler test)?

The square paper test is a simple test that evaluates the central macula. Patients can also use this test for self-examination at home. After putting on the near glasses, the point in the middle of the paper is looked at from a distance of 30 cm, first with one eye and then with the other eye. If signs such as curvature, effacement, and dark area are observed in the lines, it is recommended to consult a doctor immediately.

What is the treatment for dry type macular degeneration?

Currently, there is no cure for dry type macular degeneration. If the disease is detected early containing antioxidants, vitamins and omega-3 can slow the progression of the disease with specially produced food supplements for dry type yellow spot disease. A diet containing healthy green vegetables and fish has been shown to have a positive effect. If you smoke, you should definitely quit.

What is the treatment of wet type macular degeneration?

The aim of the treatment of wet type macular degeneration is to stop the progression of the disease, to maintain the current level of vision and to increase vision if it can be diagnosed early. Drugs administered intraocularly reduce the formation of abnormal vessels and reduce vascular permeability. In this way, undesirable events such as bleeding and fluid accumulation are prevented and further damage to the retina is prevented. The drugs given into the eye will be cleared from the eye after a while and their effectiveness will end. If the patient does not come to regular controls, the disease will be activated again. For this reason, intraocular drug injections are repeated at regular intervals.

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