WartWhat is the virus (HPV) virus?
Wart virus (HPV) is a virus that has more than 200 types and can infect humans. HPV infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. More than half of all women will be infected with the HPV virus at least once in their lifetime. 30 to 40 types of HPV viruses cause genital infection. Most HPV infections in women are temporary. However, persistent infection with high-risk virus types can cause precancerous lesions of the cervix, vagina, and vulva and cancer in these areas.
The appearance of the HPV virus in the electron microscope
HPVHow is the virus transmitted?
The HPV virus is most commonly transmitted sexually. A full sexual intercourse is not mandatory for sexual transmission. The virus can also be transmitted through direct contact.
The HPV virus in a pregnant woman can be passed to the baby during delivery. In this case, the baby usually does not develop a disease. More rarely, it can cause disease in which wart-like lesions are seen in the infant’s respiratory tract.
HPVWhat are the symptoms of infection?
Most patients who encounter the virus do not have any complaints or health problems. In 90% of those infected with the virus, the virus is cleared from the body within 2 years, thanks to the immune system. However, it cannot be determined in advance in which patients it will cause the disease.
Warts in the genital area
Some types of viruses (such as Types 6 and 11) cause genital warts in men and women. Some other high-risk virus types (Types 16, 18, 31, 35) settle into the cell. They can aberrant normal cells and lead to diseases such as precancerous lesions and cancer.
They are painless masses with a cauliflower-like appearance, sometimes single, sometimes multiple, ranging from the size of a pinhead to 4-5 cm, which are formed in the genital area with HPV virus infection. HPV types 6 and 11 most commonly cause warts.
Genital warts can appear weeks, sometimes months, after sexual intercourse with an infected person. Even if the person carries a virus, the appearance of the wart may not be seen.
If genital warts are not treated, they can completely heal, stay the same or increase and grow. However, genital warts do not turn into cancer.
Cancers of the cervix, vagina, vulva: High-risk virus types such as types 16, 18, 31, 45 can cause cancer. Cervical cancer presents late and is diagnosed after the disease has progressed. With regular smear tests, cell abnormalities can be detected earlier. These abnormalities can be treated and prevented from turning into cancer.
HPVHow can infection be prevented?
HPV vaccines protect women and men against some common types of viruses. For the best protection, three doses of the vaccine should be given in full. The effectiveness of the vaccine is higher in those who have never had sexual intercourse and have not encountered the HPV virus. However, even those with genital warts should be vaccinated because it prevents other types.
The HPV vaccine is administered very easily.
Currently, there are two vaccines, commercially named ‘Cervarix’ and ‘Gardasil’. These vaccines protect against the most common HPV viruses that cause genital cancer. In addition, ‘Gardasil’ also provides protection against genital warts. Both vaccines are recommended for girls aged 11-12 and women aged 13-26 who have not been previously vaccinated. Girls can be vaccinated from the age of 9.
Condom use provides protection against HPV infection in sexually active people. Condom use also provides protection against HPV-related warts and cancer. The condom should be used from the beginning to the end of every sexual intercourse. However, HPV infection can develop in areas not covered with condoms.
-Safe sex life:
Monogamy is a very important factor in protection from all sexually transmitted diseases.
Currently, the HPV vaccine is not paid for by the state. If possible, HPV vaccination should be done. But the most important method of protection is monogamy. Monogamy also prevents many other sexually transmitted diseases.