What is Orthodontics?
Orthodontics; It is a branch of dentistry that deals with the correction of lower and upper jaws and tooth crowding. Since it is more difficult to clean crooked and poorly positioned teeth, periodontal (gum) There is a risk of early loss of teeth due to diseases and tooth decay. In addition, by causing more pressure on the jaw muscles; They can cause temporomandibular joint disorders and thus headache, back and shoulder pain. Crowded teeth also affect your appearance. With orthodontic treatment, you can have a healthier mouth, a more impressive appearance and teeth that will stay in your mouth longer. The dentist working in this branch is called an orthodontist. In order to become an orthodontist, a doctorate in orthodontics is required after graduating from the faculty of dentistry.
Do I Need Orthodontic Treatment?
Only a dentist or orthodontist can determine your need for orthodontic treatment. Your need for orthodontic treatment and the type of treatment can be determined after an examination that includes a comprehensive medical and dental history, an oral and dental examination, the creation of your jaw models, and many diagnostic methods such as some special x-ray films and photographing. You may need orthodontic treatment if:
- Overbite:The upper front teeth are positioned far ahead of the lower front teeth.
- Underbite:The lower front teeth are located ahead of the upper front teeth or the upper teeth are located further back than the lower teeth.
- Crossbite:Upper and lower front teeth overlap each other.
- Openbite:The lower and upper anterior teeth do not come into contact with each other during closure.
- Midline shift:The midline of your upper front teeth does not coincide with the midline of your lower front teeth.
- Gaps:Gaps between teeth due to tooth extraction or naturally.
- Deviousness:Insufficient space in the jaws for the alignment of the teeth.
How Is Orthodontic Treatment Done?
The treatment that can be done to move the teeth, affect the growth of the muscles or jaws can be fixed or mobile. These treatments are performed by applying very light forces to the teeth or jaws. The treatment method is determined according to the severity of your problem.
Fixed applications consist of:
- Bracket installation: The most commonly used method, bracket attachment, is done using wires, brackets and tires. Brackets are adhered to the teeth, and the wires are passed through the brackets and force is applied to the teeth. In this way, the teeth are moved gradually and their proper positioning is ensured. The treatment can take several months or years, and adjustments are made every month to ensure that the improvement in the teeth is as desired. Brackets used today are lighter and contain less metal. It is produced in various colors and transparent for adults in order to motivate children.
- Special Fixed Applications: These appliances, which are made to pass the habit of thumb sucking, are attached to the tooth with tapes. They are recommended to be used as a last option, as they are not very comfortable during feeding.
- Fixed Placeholders:In cases where milk teeth are lost early, a placeholder is used to prevent the other teeth from slipping into the cavity until the permanent tooth erupts.
Removable Appliances are:
- Aligners (bracketless treatment): It is preferred by many orthodontists as there are no brackets and wires to align the teeth as an alternative to the fixed treatment performed by attaching brackets for adults. Aligners are usually transparent and are removed for eating, brushing and flossing.
- Movable Placeholders: They perform the same function as fixed placeholders. It consists of an acrylic base that sits on the jaw and fills the space between certain teeth with plastic or wires.
- Appliances developed to reposition the chin:These devices, called splints, are placed on the lower jaw or upper jaw and help close the jaw in a better position. (temporomandibular joint)They are also used to correct defects.
- Lip and cheek bumper: A device that pushes the teeth back and prevents the lip and cheek from getting between the teeth. Lip and cheek muscles can exert force on the teeth and bumpers cut this force.
- Chin Extender: It is a device that allows the expansion of the upper jaw. It is made of a plastic material that sits on the palate. Thanks to the force applied by the screws, the bone under the palate moves and opens.
- Moving Reinforcers: Passive appliance used to keep the teeth in place and prevent them from returning to their original state after the treatment has ended. It can also be used to give up the thumb sucking habit with a little modification.
- Headgear: It is a device that is attached to the front of the head with a band and metal wire placed on the back of the head. Headgear slows the development of the upper jaw and keeps the posterior teeth in place, while allowing the front teeth to move backwards.