What is hypospadias?

What is Hypospadias?
hypospadias It is a congenital anomaly. Urinary hole (meatus) is in the lower part of where it should be normally. Sometimes it is located near the tip of the penis, sometimes in the middle part of the underside of the penis, and sometimes in the scrotum, which includes the testicles. The exact cause of hypospadias is not known. However, low birth weight, premature birth, maternal hormone use during pregnancy, exposure to different environmental factors and genetic factors play a role.
A classification was made according to the anatomical localization of hypospadias.
1. Glanular(coronal)
2. Subcoronal
3. Distal penile
4. Midshaft
5. Proximal penile
6. Penoscrotal
7. Scrotal
8. Perineal
Other urinary system anomalies accompanying hypospadias are listed as follows; ureteropelvic stenosis, severe reflux, renal agenesis, renal ectopia or fusion, hypertrophy of the verimontanum and, to a lesser extent, all anomalies. Intersex research should be done in severe forms of hypospadias.
Cordi – Curvature of the Penis
In case of any deterioration in normal development, the external urethra remains under the penis. The head of the penis becomes straight. It causes chordee deformity by limiting the penis in erection. The ventral preputium is defected as much as the width of the cordi band. Explaining the cause of penile curvature today There are three main theories:
1. abnormal development of the urethral plate,
Presence of abnormal fibrotic mesenchyme tissue in the second urethral meatus and
3. Incompatibility between corpuscles or differential growth between normal dorsal corpus cavernosum and abnormal ventral corpus tissue.
Age of Surgery
The American Academy of Pediatrics interpreted the psychological effects of genital surgery on children, the technical aspects of hypospadias surgery and the developments in pediatric anesthesia, and concluded that the most appropriate time for hypospadias surgery is between 6-12 months. Hypospadias surgery, if there is enough penile tissue, is the current standard to be performed around the age of 1 year.
More than 200 techniques have been described for hypospadias repair. In the past, multi-stage operations were applied, but today the treatment is done in a single stage. The advantages of single-stage operations are many; minimal scarring, minimal hospitalization, minimal anesthesia, minimal cost, maximal results in terms of functional and aesthetics, and lower complication rate

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