What is Hemangioma, How Is It Treated, How Is It Treated?

Commonly observed in society and the most vein me” in the vernacular hemangiomas It is a kind of harmless vascular tumor. It can also be called rose stain among the people. Its name in the literature is referred to as “hemangioma”. These structures, which are benign, that is, from the benign tumor group, are formed as a result of the coming together and enlargement of the vessels. Although the reason for its formation cannot be fully explained due to the fact that it is a kind of vascular proliferation, it is thought to be affected by genetic factors.

It is especially seen in babies in the few months after birth and can show rapid growth. Since it grows rapidly in the first few months, it would be better to consult a specialist before worrying. These structures, which manifest themselves as redness in the first place after birth, can be confused with birthmarks. However hemangioma In cases of birthmarks, a growth process is observed and regression occurs within a few months after birth. Because of the obvious differences between the two conditions, it is recommended that parents consult a physician consciously.

What is Hemangioma?

It usually occurs in children in the first 3-4 months from birth and then grows. hemangioma Although these tumors are called benign vascular tumors, they are not directly related to tumors. Since the reason for the formation of these structures is not fully understood, it is called a benign tumor because of the proliferation of the endothelial structure in the vessels, that is, its sudden growth. In the first week after birth, the child hemangioma redness in the developing area begins to become evident. Later, swelling and redness in the area begin in diffuse hemangiomas of the rash type. At this stage, the color appears as red-purple. Within 3 months, the vascular mass may become more prominent and grow well. Widespread hemangiomas are generally not dangerous and are seen as a dermatological defect. Therefore, the hemangioma in the growing stage should be observed and followed up by the child’s caregiver. After 3 months, skin redness and local hemangioma usually begin to regress. This regression may continue until the child is 9 years old. However, those who do not pass by this age are usually permanent and may require intervention.

In addition to the harmless and common hemangiomas in the community, rare types that develop as swelling and spreading can also be observed. The developmental stage in these types is like hemangiomas resembling rose spots, but they are localized more rapidly and spreading. For example, a rash noticed on the top of the child’s nose after birth may turn into a prominent and larger red nodule at 3 months. A common hemangioma of this size will most likely regress and will not require treatment. In the type that is not common and requires possible treatment, the small redness in the nose may cover the entire nose, may progress to other parts of the face, and may cause damage to the nasal cartilage. Although this type of redness may begin to regress in the coming months, it would be better to act under the control of a specialist physician.

What Does Hemangioma Mean?

Postpartum rashes, which are frequently seen in children, are reported by their parents. What does hemangioma mean? ” may lead to the question. Because this defect, which develops as vascular enlargement as well as genetic skin differences such as birthmarks, is more common in girls and prematures. Due to the high incidence of hemangioma There are various designations for “Stork bite” for those seen on the neck, “angel kiss” for those seen on the neck, and “rose stain” for those located in various places on the head are among the frequently used names.

Hemangioma, a term of Greek origin, is called a blood vessel tumor. These benign tumors, which are not dangerous tumors, usually do not require examination by the oncology unit. If it still spreads after 1 year of age, invades other parts of the skin or other places from the organ where it is located, progresses with inflammation, and bleeding is seen even in small contacts, it may be a situation that requires intervention and may also be a situation that requires control in the pediatric oncology unit. However, for hemangiomas that are common and do not cause any damage other than being noticeable as a skin defect, observation and examination in a specialist cardiovascular surgery unit is sufficient.

How Does Hemangioma Pass?

Hemangiomas, which are observed in babies by growing until the first 1-1.5 years of age, generally tend to regress at the end of this period. Especially facial hemangiomas show regression. Hemangiomas reach various sizes depending on the type of formation, location and age of the baby. They can be 1 cm in size or exceed 10 cm in size. Hemangiomas that develop as red bumps on the skin are mostly harmless. If the rash that appears a few days after birth grows in this way and begins to take on a distinctive color, it should be followed. In this process, the dangerous and intervention-requiring types of hemangiomas that will most likely regress can be understood according to the region where they are located. Vascular tumors around the nostrils can be dangerous because those around the nostrils will make it difficult to breathe, those around the ear canal will prevent hearing, those located in the larynx can damage the vocal cords, hemangiomas in the mouth area will prevent feeding, those in the anus and urethra will prevent urine and feces out, and may require early intervention. In addition, hemangiomas in the breech and urethra can be a cause of inflammation and may cause a painful process for the child. Those around the eyes can create a permanent visual difficulty in the eyes of children who are still trying to develop and coordinate. Even if the eye, which is closed with the treatment of enlarged hemangioma in the future, is opened, it cannot coordinate with the healthy eye in 3D vision. Vascular tumors arising in such specific sections may require intervention in the early months. In such a case, treatment is provided by pediatric oncologists and specialists in cardiovascular surgery. However, follow-up is recommended for hemangiomas, which commonly occur in the form of redness and manifest as a slight swelling on the skin, and after a while, they become lighter and smaller, and cease to be an aesthetic defect.

How Is Hemangioma Treated?

It is not true to say that any type of hemangioma does not require treatment and can go away on its own. Common varieties progress after birth and change over time as fading in color, reduction in swelling, and reduction in size. However, in uncommon varieties, treatment is inevitable and needs intervention, especially before they damage the sense organs. Vascular masses can also be observed in the liver, kidney and brain. This situation should be under the control of a specialist doctor and should be followed regularly. Hemangiomas in internal organs may require surgical intervention. In different clinical types that are prescribed to be treated, there are treatment methods other than surgery.

Laser, Radiofrequency, IRC

In cases where drug treatment will not work or more technological applications will be preferred, the vascular tumor is exposed to high heat energy by means of laser, radio waves or beams sent to the area by the IRC method and non-surgical treatment is performed. Depending on the patient’s condition, several sessions may be recommended.

Foam Scletotherapy

In general, this method is used in hemangiomas that are not very obvious but cause cosmetic defects. Varicose veins are the cases where this method is used the most. A sclerosing agent is injected intravenously into the varicose area. This drug, which is foamed and applied to the vein in superficial capillary problems, takes this name because of its application method. After the application, it is recommended that patients not go out in the sun and pay attention to the treatment area. Since this procedure is a direct vascular treatment, it should be under the supervision and instruction of a specialist cardiovascular surgeon.

Surgical Method

It is the process of removing the tumorized area from the body by making an incision. If it causes irritation, inflammation and pain in the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, larynx, anal and genital areas, the surgical method may sometimes be the best solution. However, around the age of 2-3, the incision area can create an aesthetic problem because the child perceives and remembers the image of the face. For this reason, early intervention by cardiovascular surgeons who are experts in the field will be a better treatment for the child in pre-school age. Surgical intervention for tumors around the face must be carefully decided.

Hemangiomas are treated with methods such as sclerotherapy and radiofrequency.

What Are the Types of Hemangiomas?

The reason why vascular tumors are generally not included in the field and follow-up of oncology is because they are not cancerous vascular structures. Because cancerous cells multiply uncontrollably and metastasize to other structures and organs. However, hemangiomas, which are benign and cause enlargement in the inner layers of the vessels, have a different structure from cancerous cells. Therefore, treatment and control in cardiovascular surgery will be more appropriate.

Types of hemangiomas varies according to its location. There may be various treatment and follow-up procedures depending on their location. Because the species that spread generally on the skin and the species that develop spontaneously on the face may not be the same size, developmental stage, and aesthetic problem. In addition to hemangiomas on the face, orbital environment, skin, and internal organs, rare cases called Kasabach Merritt Syndrome can also be seen.

Facial Hemangiomas

Species observed in this environment on the face, especially in the nasal and oral cavity, require monitoring. The types that appear in a few millimeters and grow gradually are generally harmless and tend to shrink after 1 year. However, early intervention is required in the types that cause feeding and breathing difficulties in the child by closing the nasal and oral cavities.

Orbital Peripheral Hemangiomas

Hemangiomas that start around the eyeball should be followed up in the following months because of the possibility of growth and obstruction of vision. Those that start on the eyelid and around the eyes may develop into a puffy color by gradually getting a dark color. Early treatment in these children hemangioma It is the most ideal solution to save the eye without loss of vision in the eye seen. It is recommended that parents be controlled and consult specialist physicians.

Skin Hemangiomas

Because it is the most common type of hemangioma, it is referred to by various names in the public. Rose stain, angel kiss, stork bite, wine stain are common expressions. Hemangiomas named with this nomenclature are a few millimeters in size on the skin surface and can shrink without a cosmetic problem. If parents see this type of rash, they should wait for a while before consulting the doctor. hemangiomamust monitor the area.

Lumbosacral Hemangiomas

This type of hemangioma seen in the lumbar region of the child may progress to dimensions that may leave permanent damage to the spinal cord and neuronal transmission. It is known that this type of tumors is generally seen together with other spinal abnormalities.

Hemangioma Treatment in Babies

Hemangioma in Babies

Although it is thought to be congenital since 55% of hemangiomas occur at birth, hemangiomas that occur in adulthood are also seen. Hemangioma in infants may require different follow-up and treatment depending on its location, depth, proliferation rate of cells, color and depth, and whether it is in the skin or organs. Therefore, it can be said that most of the hemangiomas with different clinical course are harmless. However, in some types, early treatment and doctor control are important. Hemangiomas around the mouth, nose, eyes and ear canal should be observed for a while by the child’s caregiver. If the growth in these areas carries the risk of preventing the ability to eat, see and breathe, specialist physicians should be consulted. Although the pathogenesis of hemangioma in infants is not clearly understood, there are findings that it may be a genetic defect. in newborns hemangioma Although the rate is less, this statistic is higher in 1-year-old babies. 2-3 times more common in girls than boys hemangiomais observed.

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