What is gynecomastia and what are the treatment methods?

Gynecomastia is a condition that goes with the growth and swelling of the breast with the increase of the breast tissue itself or the adipose tissue in the breast in men. “Jineko” means (feminine, feminine) and “masti” represents breast enlargement. In other words, gynecomastia is the condition of having a feminine breast enlargement in men.

Gynecomastia can affect one breast or both breasts. Most of the time, patients cannot find any discomfort that may cause this condition, and the cause is not clearly known. Among the known causes of gynecomastia, imbalances in the male hormone or an increase in the female hormone are blamed. At the same time, hormone-mixed ready-to-eat foods, the use of certain drugs and steroids, or excessive and rapid weight gain and loss are blamed. But the cause of gynecomastia is not known exactly. If there are other examination findings, the patient can be investigated hormonally, but most of the time, a hormonal disorder cannot be detected. Obesity, nutritional disorders and excessive consumption of ready-to-eat foods, hormone-secreting masses in the testicles or adrenal glands, some liver diseases, thyroid dysfunctions, kidney failure or some drugs are among the possible gynecomastine causes.

Gynecomastia can often be seen with changing hormone levels during adolescence. It can also be seen in middle age and later. Generally, patients are young middle-aged men.

Gynecomastia often presents with breast pain, tenderness and abnormal growth. Patients often complain when they have a hard mass behind the nipple when they check it manually. At the same time, most of the male patients who applied state that they do not want to take off their clothes in public areas, they do not want to use the dressing areas and showers, they have difficulty in wearing t-shirts in summer and they do not want to go to the sea because of their bad appearance. This can cause anxiety, stress and depression in some patients.

To talk about the most common mistakes of patients with gynecomastia, gynecomastia does not go away on its own. It cannot be regressed by losing weight. Again, it is thought that it can be passed by making chest muscle by patients. However, on the contrary, when the muscle is exercised and enlarged, it pushes the fat and breast tissue forward more, and as the gynecomastia does not go away, it starts to become more obvious and more swollen.

In gynecomastia, this growth in the breast tissue can be seen in 3 ways. Either the breast tissue may increase or the fat tissue may increase or both can be seen in combination. This distinction is sometimes made by examination, and in cases where there is an in between, breast ultrasound or MR is performed. At the same time, hormone and some blood tests may be requested when necessary.

In gynecomastia, which is caused by the increase in breast tissue, the treatment is the removal of the breast tissue by entering through an incision made under the nipple. In gynecomastia, which goes with an increase in fat tissue, the treatment is fat removal (liposuction). If there is an increase in both breast tissue and fat tissue, both liposuction and tissue removal are performed by entering through an incision under the nipple.

Children and adolescence usually do not need treatment. It is enough to wait and observe. If one of the reasons mentioned above causes gynecomastia, this medical condition should be treated first.

The aim of surgical treatment in gynecomastia is to remove excess tissue and fat, change the shape of the breast from a feminine breast image to a masculine breast image, remove excess skin, if any, to achieve the closest symmetrical result between the right and left, and to keep the scar to a minimum. The surgery is performed under general anesthesia. The incisions are 2-3 cm half-moon incisions under the nipple. If only liposuction is applied, there are only small traces of 3-4 entry holes of 5 millimeters. One day of hospitalization is sufficient. Drains placed to drain blood and fluids that may accumulate inside are removed painlessly within 2-3 days. Adequate recovery is achieved in an average of 1 week and it is recommended to use a tight corset/athlete for 3-4 weeks. After 3-4 weeks, the patient recovers so that he can easily do many activities. It is recommended to quit smoking before the surgery and not to smoke for at least a while after the surgery. It is normal to see edema, swelling and slight irregularities in the breast area after the surgery. These go away on their own. Resting for 3 days after gynecomastia surgery, not moving the arms and shoulders too much is important for less pain and faster recovery. If there is no problem, you can take a short shower 3 days after the gynecomastia surgery, go back to work and take light walks.

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