What is Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load?

In recent years, chronic diseases and nutritional disorders resulting from malnutrition, malnutrition and inactivity have become widespread in our country. On the one hand, as a result of excessive food consumption, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure and diabetes etc. While diseases start to appear, diseases caused by vitamin and mineral deficiencies increase as a result of malnutrition.

In order to solve these problems, first of all, it is necessary to raise awareness of our people about proper nutrition and to facilitate their access to the foods they need.

Current dietary guidelines recommend that the carbohydrate content of the diet meet 45-60% of total calories.

In recent years, many studies have been conducted on the effects of consumption of foods with high glycemic index (GI) and high carbohydrate content on health risks.

On the other hand, it has been emphasized that foods with low GI have positive effects on human health, such as providing glycemic control, providing long-term satiety, and lowering LDL levels, which we call bad cholesterol among the public.

glycemic index; The starch structure of foods undergoes changes during the preparation, cooking, and storage of foods depending on their natural characteristics such as the type of foods, maturity level, sugar and pulp content, and acidity.

The application of any preparation, cooking and storage processes to foods before they are cooked affects the digestion of nutrients and changes their GI.

Processes such as chopping, chopping and kneading in the preparation and production of foods reduce the particle size of the food and make the starch in it more susceptible to degradation. It affects the glycemic response that will occur with the increase in the digestibility of starch.

Cooking method, degree, volume of water used and initial moisture content in raw foods determine the degree of gelatinization of starch. It is directly associated with digestibility and glycemic response (the rate at which the carbohydrate taken into the body is converted into glucose and passed into the blood).

Glycemic Load (GY),The concept reflects the amount of dietary carbohydrates and the tendency to raise blood sugar.

GY value, which is the total load formed by the amount of carbohydrates eaten in a day, is calculated by mathematically multiplying the amount of carbohydrate in the food by the GI of that food and then dividing by 100.

Glycemic Index (GI) ,It is defined as the potential of carbohydrate foods to raise blood sugar.

The glycemic index is the determination of the effects of foods on blood sugar levels after consumption, especially by comparing them with glucose or white meat. When calculating the glycemic index of the food, the food is 50 gr. amount of carbohydrates is consumed. It is compared with the control food (glucose or white bread) consumed in equal amounts.

Foods with a low GI are absorbed more slowly from the gut than foods with a high GI. Therefore, they produce a lower glycemic response with a slower rise in postprandial blood sugar and insulin (blood sugar regulating hormone) levels.

glycemic index glycemic load

Low<55 0-10

Middle55-69 11-19

High>70 >20

ITS EFFECT ON DISEASES IS HUGE!

Since low GI foods reduce the rate of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, the need for insulin is also reduced. It has great positive effects on health such as providing glycemic control, providing long-term satiety, lowering LDL, which we call bad cholesterol among the people. All these factors play an important role in the prevention of many chronic diseases such as Type-2 Diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis we call coronary heart disease and various forms of cancer.

WE CAN ORDER THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE GLICEMIC INDEX OF FOODS AS FOLLOWS;

  1. DIFFERENCE IN THE STRUCTURE OF STARCH AND THE CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT OF FOODS

in starch amylose(water-soluble part of starch) – amylopectin The ratio of starch (the insoluble part of starch) determines the glycemic index value. An increase in amylose in a food lowers the glycemic index.

For example; While dry legumes have a high amylose rate and a low glycemic index value, wheat flour has a high amylopectin rate and a high glycemic index value.

  1. DIET FRUIT AND MATURITY LEVEL OF FOODS

Water-soluble fiber types found in foods slow down the passage of food from the stomach to the small intestine. It lowers the glycemic index value. As fruits and vegetables mature, the glycemic index value decreases.

  1. FOOD STRUCTURE AND PROCESSES APPLIED TO THE FOOD

The presence of nutrients such as fat, protein and fiber in foods, their type and amount lower the glycemic index. Cooking food also increases the glycemic index value, as it facilitates digestion and absorption.

  1. CONSUMPTION RATE OF FOOD

Digestion and absorption decrease with slow consumption of nutrients. As a result, the glycemic index value decreases.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX DIET

  • Purified grain products, which are fast to digest, and whole grain products should be included in the diet instead of potatoes.

  • Instead of white bread, whole wheat, rye, etc. Bread should be consumed.

  • Legumes rich in fiber should be consumed 2-3 times a week.

  • At least 5 servings of fruit and vegetables should be consumed per day.

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