Feminism is a movement composed of various ideologies, social movements and mass organizations for the elimination of inequalities in order to recognize the rights of women and protect these rights.
What is Second Wave Feminism?
The second wave feminism, which showed its influence between the 1960s and 1980s, was shaped within the framework of the motto of the personal, that is, the special. Focusing on the private sphere, second-wave feminism drew attention to women’s roles in the home, inequality, reproduction, and sexual freedom. A structuring was provided on the masculine structure and wishes that were adopted in the world order. Fighting the stereotypes imposed by the patriarchal structure in the home and in daily life, the second wave women worked to ensure their own control and control, not by someone else. On the basis of this inequality, both cultural concepts and political attitudes led to the support of the concept of inequality between men and women. Trying to keep the concept of women out of private and political concepts, “The personal/private is political” broke the game by saying that the restriction of women to the private sphere, the activities they carry out in the private sphere and the inequalities they encounter here are also political. According to many feminists, this cycle has come to an end because of the “Feminist Sex Wars” and the intense inter-feminist debates on issues such as sexuality and pornography.
What is Third Wave Feminism?
It can be said that the third wave feminism started in 1990 and has reached the present day. It started to be examined and supported within the framework of ‘individuality’ by restructuring being a feminist. Third-wave feminism seeks to expand feminism to include women of different identities, sexual orientations, skin colors, nationalities, and ethnic origins. The third wave emphasizes that women of different religious, national or ethnic origins, who do not define themselves as heterosexual, should be united without creating an upside-down relationship. She emphasizes that she has differences in general terms and that this situation should not be ignored, and that every woman can be included in a different and marginalized concept in her inner world.
What are the differences between the second and third wave?
The reason for the differences between the waves is to adapt to the requirements and conditions brought by the period.
While the second wave emphasized the unifying power of being a woman, the third wave also included women who were persecuted because of their race or sexual orientation, giving importance to identities.
The concept of the third wave emerged to improve the points where second wave feminism fell short. While second-wave feminism evaluated the concept of woman in a more one-dimensional way, third-wave feminism focused on women’s problems of different skin, religion, and culture. In other words, he examined the concept of woman from many perspectives.
The third wave tried to raise awareness on the social and political rights of women who were not represented and marginalized in the second wave feminist movement.
While considering the class difference between the second wave women, it did not take into account the issues that could cause different gender problems.
The third wave contains more diversity and individuality than the second wave.
The third wave focuses on more individual concepts than the second wave. The main point of the second wave continued its research on more social concepts.
While it is observed that the concept of equality is more prominent in the second wave, the third wave thinks that the concept of equality causes assimilation on women. For this reason, it focuses more on the concept of justice. Because the concept of justice represents different rights for different groups for the third wave.
What are the similarities between the second and third wave?
They were pioneers in their time on women’s rights.
Each wave has focused on the points that it deems lacking in the previous wave.
They did not remain silent when women were marginalized by the society because they were women.
They defended women’s rights in social, cultural, societal and political concepts.
The waves have tried to break down gender roles.
In which wave does Turkey take place in terms of Feminist thought?
Turkey is between 3 waves of feminism and 4 waves of feminism. The 4-wave current, which is common in the countries of the world today, is at a starting stage for Turkey. There are many countries in the world that have reached large masses and are fighting over gender roles and aiming to spread the concept of feminism through social networks. With the events opened on Twitter, one of the social networks used among these countries, countries have started to spread their struggle for this cause. However, when the studies are examined, Turkey’s activities could not go beyond the borders of its own country. Turkey’s common use of violence is no to women. With this # (hastag), many women have supported their fellows who are discriminated against in your country and have also made a call to individuals who exhibit such behavior. Individuals are included in the trend by making this tag on their pictures and videos. Any age group can use this tag. Thus, the awareness network expands. Although studies continue in this context, it is not enough for today. The concept of individual difference and freedoms, which is contained in 3 wave feminism, continues to be effective in Turkey today. Women’s rights and freedoms are supported within the framework of individuality. Institutions and organizations advocating for women’s rights continue their activities on the issues of working individuality and justice being different for everyone.
What is 4th Wave Feminism?
The 4 waves that started to show themselves in 2012 are more dynamic. It maintains its effects and develops even today. By rejecting homophobia, transphobia and racist immigration policies, it acts with a total discourse that opposes racism, imperialism, colonization, destruction of nature, heterosexism and neo-liberalism. Today, the prevalence and visibility of social networks is very high. 4 waves want to benefit from this visibility. While defending the differences of personal rights, as in the concept of 3 waves, they tried to show these defense strategies mostly on digital networks. The intertwining of the world in digital forms and the importance of digital among mass media has been an opportunity for 4 waves. He went on feminism using 4 wave digital platforms. It can be said that feminism makes a difference with the change in the way of struggle rather than the subjects of struggle. They formed the digital feminism movement. This wave, also called “Hashtag feminism”, reaches an indispensable point with online activism in positive, negative or thought-provoking situations in gender fields. Women who did not identify with feminism before have started to engage in feminist actions. This is an important factor that distinguishes fourth-wave feminism from other feminist waves.
is a feature. It has been easy to universalize with faster data sharing. By including the young women, who did not show themselves before, into the process, it has ensured that the female gender is in unity and solidarity from younger age groups to older age groups. With their online campaigns, they have made great impact campaigns for women. For example, trending trends around the world: #FreeTheNipple (Free Your Nipples), #MyDressMyChoice (My Dress is My Choice), #NiUnaMenos (We Won’t Miss One More), #HappyToBleed (I’m Happy to Bleed), #MeToo (Me Too), #Whitewednesdays ( White Wednesdays).
2021 GrlzWave An Example of 4 Wave Feminism
GrlzWave girls united as taboo-breaking women in Georgia, using social media to raise awareness on issues such as sexuality, homo/transphobia, mental health, and sexism that are less talked about and prejudiced in society, and to create a safe place where everyone can talk freely, share their stories and experiences, and listen to each other without hate speech. working to create space. Its pioneers are Sopo Buadze, Anita Bregvadze and Tekla Tevdorashvili. Coming together from different fields, the trio tries to express the unspoken in ways such as graffiti, visual content and illustration. They broadcast their calls on the social network Facebook and Instagram. Focusing more on young girls and marginalized groups, GrlzWve wants to bring feminism to wider audiences. We aim to expand our work in the future. They plan to focus more on climate change. They are studying how this affects women, specifically women with breast cancer. They say that organizing videos and trainings on this subject is among our primary goals.