What is Endometrial Polyp, What Are the Examination Methods That Can Be Used as a Diagnosis?

Endometrial polyps are benign intrauterine masses. Although they can be seen at any age, they are most often detected between the ages of 40-50, when hormonal irregularities are experienced, and more often during menopause. Their most basic clinical importance is that they can cause abnormal uterine bleeding. In addition, when it develops during the fertile age, it can cause the embryo formed by fertilization to not adhere to the endometrium layer and cause miscarriage due to its space-occupying effect in the uterine cavity. Endometrial polyps very rarely show malignant (malignant) transformation, that is, transformation into cancer.

On ultrasound, they are seen as one or more soft tissue masses that grow from the surface of the tissue called the endometrium that lines the uterus (uterus) cavity to the uterine cavity. Its internal structure is generally similar to the endometrium layer from which it originates, and its outer contours are round or oval. They can be seen in sizes ranging from 1-2 mm to filling the entire uterine cavity. The majority of polyps originate from the fundus, sometimes from the anterior or posterior wall endometrium, and extend downwards (like a grape with a stem). Since the vessels feeding the polyp mass extend into the mass like a tree branch from this stem, the region of origin of the stem can be determined by examining it with color Doppler ultrasound. In addition, according to the blood supply characteristics of the polyp, clues can be obtained regarding the growth potential of the mass or the possibility of it being a malignant mass. SIS (saline infusion sonography) is another examination that can be performed to better visualize the borders of the mass with the endometrium from which it originated, in order to determine the intervention method for differentiation or treatment with other possible lesions. In this examination, by filling the uterine cavity with fluid, all the marginal features of the mass in the fluid can be visualized as the area where it originated on the uterine wall.

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