According to DSM-5, in order for the current mood to be defined as depression, at least five items of the symptoms listed below must last for a minimum of two weeks.
- Depressed mood (most of the day, almost every day)
- Significant weight gain or yield, change in appetite
- Insomnia or excessive sleepiness
- Fatigue or lack of energy
- feeling of worthlessness
- concentration disorder
- Having thoughts of death and suicide
- Decreased interest in activities
Why does depression occur?
From a biological point of view, in case of low secretion of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine hormones, the chemical balance of the brain is disturbed and depression symptoms begin to appear.
From a cognitive perspective, Martin Seligman argues that the feeling of helplessness about the future can turn into depression. Aaron T. Beck, on the other hand, argues that negative thoughts that an individual has towards himself, his future and his environment can cause depression.
It is important to cooperate with the psychiatrist for drug treatment in case of major depression. In addition, with the cognitive behavioral therapy method, we aim to create alternative positive thoughts instead of the thought errors that cause depression or feed depressive thoughts, which are called cognitive distortions. Sessions, including psychoeducation, enable the client to form thoughts that can make him feel better in the face of negative events after a while, or allow him to look at the situation he is in from an objective point of view rather than a pessimistic perspective. In addition, we aim for some behavioral changes, such as increasing their activities and establishing a sleep pattern.