What is allergic rhinitis? How is the treatment?

Allergy is a set of symptoms that occur when the body’s defense (immune) system perceives particles that are not actually harmful to the body and creates a defensive (immune) reaction. They are named according to the organ in which the reaction and symptoms occur. For example, if symptoms occur in the nose, they are called allergic rhinitis, and if they occur in the lungs, they are called allergic asthma. Particles that cause allergic symptoms are called allergens. The most common allergens are pollen and house dust mites (mites) and molds. While pollens usually cause seasonal allergic rhinitis, house dust mites and molds cause an all-year-round allergic reaction called perennial allergic rhinitis. Although allergic diseases are actually genetic diseases, symptoms usually do not appear immediately after birth. A certain allergen load should be formed according to the sensitivity level of the person. Allergic diseases cannot be eliminated with treatment. However, with treatment, the symptoms caused by the allergy can be eliminated. Therefore, patients have to use their medications during symptomatic periods. With some measures to reduce exposure to allergens, it may be possible to increase the success of treatment and partially reduce the need for medication.

pollen

They are particles of different weights and diameters that are released into the air during the fertilization periods of plants and spread by the wind. They cause seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever) in susceptible individuals. Trees in spring and grasses towards the end of summer are the most important sources of pollen. Since pollens are spread by the wind, it should be avoided in open environments, if possible, in the morning and evening, which are usually windy, and home ventilation should not be done during these hours. Changing clothes and taking a shower on the way home from the outside environment can be beneficial in removing pollen from the environment.

House Dust Mite (Mite)

Mites are the most important allergens of the indoor environment. They are microscopic creatures that cannot be seen with the naked eye. They feed on skin rashes. They reproduce more in hot and humid environments. Mite allergens can be found on carpets, mattresses, pillows, duvet covers, sofas, sofas, etc. They are found on the surfaces of such items and scatter allergic particles to the environment they are in. Sitting on these items, pressing, etc. In such cases, these allergens mix with the air and cause complaints in allergic patients. Conventional household cleaning methods and pesticides do not kill these creatures.

Precautions to be taken to protect from mite allergens

Moisture increases the reproduction of mites. For this reason, the humidity rate in the house should be kept below 50-55%.

Carpets must be removed

If possible, dust-proof materials should be preferred for floor coverings.

Beds, pillows, duvet covers and curtains should be anti-allergic if possible. If this is not possible, synthetic fabrics should be preferred.

Washing at high temperatures kills the mites. For this reason, bedding, pillows and bedding should be washed at high temperatures once a week.

Mattress, pillows and duvet sets should be chosen from synthetic materials that can be washed.

The bedroom and bedding should be ventilated as much as possible.

Clothes should be kept in closed cabinets.

In particular, stuffed cloth-covered toys should be avoided.

Easy-to-clean leather or synthetic leather-covered furniture should be preferred instead of fabric-covered furniture.

Floor coverings and dusty areas should be cleaned regularly with damp mops or cloths, and the rooms should be ventilated after cleaning.

The patient should not be in the room during cleaning with a vacuum cleaner, and the rooms should be ventilated after cleaning. However, if it is unavoidable for the patient to be in the environment during cleaning, masks with high filter properties should be used. Vacuum cleaners with HEPA filters or water systems can be partially beneficial in preventing the release of mites into the air.

Books should be kept in closed book cabinets.

Precautions to be taken to protect from Mold Allergens

Moisture increases mold growth. For this reason, the humidity rate in the house should be kept below 50-55%.

To reduce the humidity in the house;

Water leaks need to be repaired

Humid areas such as kitchens and bathrooms should be ventilated frequently.

Laundry should not be dried inside the house.

Moldy surface should be wiped with 10% chlorinated water (bleach) at least once every 3 months.

Air conditioner maintenance and filter cleaning should be done regularly.

If necessary, dehumidifiers can be used.

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