Developments in the field of evidence-based medicine have made the pathophysiology of orthopedic injuries and the effect of disease progression on the outcome a matter of curiosity. Traditional treatments do not always respond to age groups, occupations or patient expectations. For this reason, patient-specific treatment strategies are tried to be created and the result of the treatment is tried to be improved. For this reason, the use of regenerative medicine applications, which include treatments such as tissue engineering and stem cells, has been increasing in recent years.
Stem cell: An unchanged pure cell with the ability to reproduce, renew itself, transform into other special cells (such as bone, cartilage, muscle) and repair tissues.
Totipotent cell: This type of cell can differentiate into any cell in the body and also form extra-embryonic and placental cells. Cells in the early stages of the embryo are the only known totipotent cells and have no clinical use for ethical reasons.
Pluripotent cells: This type of cells can also differentiate into cells of three different cell layers (endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm). Cells in the advanced stage of the embryo after the blastocyst stage are pluripotent cells.
Multipotent cells: Although this type of cells can differentiate into more than one cell layer, they cannot differentiate into all of them. Adult stem cells and cord blood cells are multipotent cells.