What is a brain hemorrhage?

Cerebral hemorrhage is the common name given to hemorrhages within the skull.

There are several causes that can lead to bleeding, and the risk to life from bleeding depends on the cause of bleeding, the location and amount of bleeding.

Conditions leading to brain hemorrhage:

1- Trauma: it is a blow to the head. Cerebral hemorrhages that develop depending on the place of impact and the damage to the head (such as bone fracture, brain tissue damage, vascular injury) can be of various types and compartments.

2-Hypertension: As a result of increased blood pressure, bleeding into the brain tissue or between the membranes surrounding the brain may occur.

3- Due to vascular disease: cerebral hemorrhages that occur in conditions that cause weakening of the vascular wall, such as aneurysm, usually occur between the membranes surrounding the brain.

4- It may occur as a result of congestion in the small veins in the brain or the main veins of the brain.

5-Bleeding may develop in the brain tissue damaged due to insufficient blood flow or for other reasons.

6-In some brain tumors, intratumoral hemorrhages may occur.

7-Brain hemorrhage can also be seen in some blood diseases, as in other organs of the body.


It can be classified according to the causes of bleeding listed above (traumatic, hypertensive, aneurysmatic, intratumoral, venous hemorrhages), or according to which compartment it occurs:

1-Intracerebral hemorrhage: bleeding within the brain tissue

2-Intraventricular hemorrhage: It is the bleeding into the water-filled spaces (ventricles) in the brain.

3-Epidural hemorrhage: It is the bleeding that occurs in the gap between the outermost layer membrane surrounding the brain and the skull. It is usually seen as a result of head traumas and fractures.

4-Subdural hemorrhage: It is bleeding between the membranes surrounding the brain. It can be caused by trauma, vascular injury, blood disease, decreased intracranial pressure, and may develop spontaneously.

5-Subarachnoid hemorrhage: It is the bleeding that develops between the innermost layer of the membranes surrounding the brain and the middle layer. The most common cause is bleeding of the brain vessel for a reason such as aneurysm. It can also develop due to trauma or infection.

The most practical method used to investigate brain hemorrhage is “computerized tomographic imaging” (CT) examination. In some cases, the “magnetic resonance imaging” method can be used.

Brain hemorrhage is one of the most urgent and risky situations in medicine. This picture, which can lead to death or paralysis in a short time, may require very urgent surgery. However, not every cerebral hemorrhage necessarily requires immediate surgery. The time and method of treatment may vary depending on the location, amount and cause of bleeding.

prof. Dr. Ozenc MINARECI

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