What genetic engineering brings

It is inevitable that the agricultural and animal production systems of developing countries will be under serious threat due to the decrease in biodiversity due to the spread of the production and use of GMOs in line with the preferences of multinational companies, and in parallel with this, in the face of global market pressure. This situation threatens the sustainability of local agricultural and animal production forms, and thus the food security of the world, due to the problems in the social, economic and cultural areas it may cause.

Developments in genetics and molecular biology in recent years have made it possible to manipulate and manipulate the genetic structures of organisms through engineering processes. In this context, gene transfer can be made between unrelated species, where gene exchange is not possible in natural processes, with the possibilities of gene technology, and in this way, the gene structures of organisms can be changed purposefully. Thus, gene-engineered plant and animal species (GMOs) that yield more and higher quality products, are resistant to marginal conditions and pests, can be developed.

history of GMOsto carry out gene transfer through bacteria ( 1974)Following this, for the first time by Monsanto Company, “kanamycin” antibiotic resistant gene transferred (transgenic) tobacco It dates back to the development of the plant and the placing on the market of the first transgenic product (1988). With the understanding of the practical benefits of GMOs, it is seen that their use in medicine, cosmetics, various health applications and environmental cleaning sectors has become widespread in a short time besides plant and animal production. In particular, due to the expectations created to overcome the food deficiency due to the expected increase in product quantity and quality, the agriculture of genetically modified (GMO) plants (biotechnological agriculture) attracts a lot of attention and is rapidly becoming widespread in the world. As a matter of fact, agricultural production based on GMOs, led by the USA, has increased 30 times since 1997, reaching 53 million hectares in 2001 and 63 million hectares in 2003 (Kefi, 2002), from approximately 1.7 million hectares. shows the growth rate of the industry.

In addition to the above-mentioned practical benefits that the use of gene-transferred plants (GMOs) can provide, it is thought that these products may cause various problems in the ecosystem and socio-economic structures of developing countries.

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