What are the types of learning disabilities?

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Dyslexia (Reading Difficulty):

A diagnosis of reading disorder is made when a child’s reading achievement is markedly inferior to his intelligence. These children have difficulties especially in terms of language and verbal expression. These children have poor auditory comprehension skills. They cannot make phonetic distinctions of words. Children with reading disorders make many mistakes in their verbal reading. Errors occur with omissions, additions and distortions of words. The child’s reading speed is slow and reading comprehension is poor. Many children with reading disorders do not enjoy reading and writing.

Although dyslexia is a variant of Special Learning Disability (SLD), it is commonly used in place of Special Learning Disability. Because most individuals with Special Learning Disability have a reading disorder (Dyslexia).

Dysgraphia (Writing Difficulty):

It is the state of having a writing ability that is lower than expected for a person’s age, intellectual capacity, and educational level. Although they can write by looking, they have difficulty in writing by dictation. Spelling, grammatical and markup errors are bad paragraph order and ugly handwriting. Word choices are inaccurate and inappropriate, their paragraphs are irregular, they are harder to spell, and their vocabulary is narrower. They misuse their notebooks. People with writing difficulties have difficulty holding a pencil and write by skipping or mixing letters.

Dyscalculia (Math Difficulty):

It has been determined that there are disorders in four ability groups in mathematics disorder. Language abilities (understanding math terms and translating written problems into mathematical symbols), perceptual ability (ability to recognize and understand symbols and cluster numbers), math abilities (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and following the order of basic operations), and attention abilities (write numbers correctly) and observing the trading symbols correctly).

Dyspraxia (Movement coordination Disorder):

It is an inborn difficulty that affects a person’s ability to plan and process motor tasks. Dyspraxia is a motor planning difficulty, not a muscular condition. The child understands what he wants, but cannot adapt himself to what is asked.

In general, we can define Dyspraxia as difficulty affecting coordination and movement in basic and fine motor skills.

Coordination difficulties are manifested in language, perception and thought along with clumsiness. Dyspraxia can be different in children and adults.

There are 3 types of dyspraxia:

1- Oral

2- Verbal

3- Engine

One or more of them can be seen in a dyspraxic child. Children with this disorder appear like other children. The difficulty experienced when asked to do a skill gives a clue in recognizing the problem. Dyspraxia is thought to result from the immaturity of parts of the motor cortex. These sections prevent the message from being fully transmitted to the body. Dyspraxia affects 10% of the population and 70% occurs in men.

Dyspraxia does not affect intelligence. The dyspraxic child has medium or upper-intermediate intelligence.

It can affect behavior and social skills. It is a specific learning disability.

What is Oral Dyspraxia?

Oral dyspraxia is difficulty in planning and creating tongue/lip movements and performing skills such as sucking and blowing.

This indirectly affects speaking and swallowing skills as well. An oral dipractic child may not be able to fully control his saliva in skills such as licking ice cream.

What is Verbal Dyspraxia?

Verbal dyspraxia is a speech disorder experienced in initiating, sequencing, and programming the movements necessary to produce speech sounds.

A child with verbal dyspraxia; Exhibits highly incomprehensible speech, simplifies words (e.g. ‘aba’ for car), has inconsistent speech patterns, swaps sounds in words (e.g. “ball”—”pot”)), may become confused when making sounds, and tries to find the sound with tongue-lip movements, may experience delay in expressive language, may use a complex gesture system that helps with communication skills, may have difficulty in saying sounds such as /pa-ta-ka/ and words consisting of different syllables such as these.

What is Motor Dyspraxia?

Motor dyspraxia is the difficulty in planning, sequencing and performing age-appropriate skills in a coordinated and comfortable manner, on a directive or voluntarily.

In a child with motor dyspraxia; Learning new skills, coordinating movements, handwriting, consistent performance, age-appropriate skills, generalizing what has been learned, timing and rhythm, learning rules, speed of learning, spatial organization, problem solving, using appropriate clues, analyzing what is needed to perform a skill may have difficulties.

Among those diagnosed with dyspraxia are famous names such as Harry Potter movie star Daniel Radcliffe, model Cara Delevingne and musician Florence Welch.

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