As in every sport, it is necessary to warm up by doing the necessary muscle exercises before starting the sport. Unheated muscles and ligaments are vulnerable to injury. Since injuries seen in cold weather are mostly muscle and tendon injuries; You should choose windproof and waterproof clothes that protect body temperature. In addition, the use of light clothing, shoes that do not sweat the feet and support the ankles, and the use of equipment such as snow goggles, gloves and joint pads significantly reduce sports injuries.
What type of injuries do you encounter most in winter sports?
In general, we encounter simple injuries such as wrist sprains and fractures around the joint due to falling. However, ankle and knee injuries cause cruciate ligament and lateral ligament injuries. Knee injuries can lead to more serious injuries ranging from a simple meniscus tear to more serious ligament injuries. Particularly during sports, acute muscle strains, tears, rupture of the ligaments in and around the joint, joint dislocations, fractures can be seen, as well as cartilage injuries and osteoarthritis (calcification) in chronic injuries.
What are the risk factors for this type of injury?
First of all, this type of injury depends on the competency, training and technique of the sport. Before starting sports that require technical knowledge, such as skiing, lessons must be taken.
We can collect the risk factors for injuries under two simple headings as environmental causes and physical causes.
Overloading the body: Body muscles and ligaments are able to withstand a certain amount of pressure, depending on the person’s structure. This endurance varies depending on previous exercise.
Doing sports with incorrect technique: Unconsciously exposing the ligament and muscle structure to pressure, especially while doing sports, causes the tissue to become vulnerable to injury.
· Inappropriate equipment: Doing sports with clothes and equipment that are not suitable for sports cause especially foot-ankle injuries and sprains.
· Sudden temperature changes in the body: If the body temperature cannot stay within certain limits for various reasons, fatigue can occur quickly, and falls due to fatigue may occur.
Inequalities in leg lengths,
Decrease in body flexibility,
· Joint laxity,
Obesity and overweight.
What are the first interventions to be applied after sports injuries?
Sports injuries such as ligament rupture and fracture may require hospital intervention and treatment; Most injuries can also be relieved with self-help first aid. Typically, after many injuries, swelling, redness, hypersensitivity and temperature increase in the injured area can be seen. The first thing to do after injury is to prevent excessive swelling (edema) of the tissue.
Things to do in this direction:
Applying ice or cold compresses: It is helpful in preventing the increase of both pain and edema. The important thing here is that the ice should not come into direct contact with the skin. It would be correct to apply a cold compress for 10-20 minutes every few hours.
Compression: The injured area can be applied by wrapping it lightly and tightly with a bandage. It helps to prevent edema from increasing. It should be applied by wrapping upwards from the end point.
Elevation: Bringing the injured limb closer to heart level will slow down the development of edema.
Rest: Quitting the activity and resting is an important factor that accelerates the healing process.
What to do after first aid?
Although the person feels good after the first interventions mentioned above and thinks that the injury will improve, this may be a big mistake and may cause the disability to reach more serious dimensions. One of the important and frequently encountered issues here is the individual differences.
Since some patients have a high pain threshold, they consider the limitation of foot-ankle movements to be insignificant and apply to the health center late, although they have suffered serious injuries. The first thing we can recommend is that patients with swelling (edema) in the injury area should go to a suitable health center and be examined as soon as possible. Evaluation of the disability and treatment must be done by specialist physicians.