Stress; It is a negative emotional experience that can produce biochemical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral changes. These effects vary according to events and adaptation to these changing events. Although the stressors are various, the factors that put some people under stress may not affect some people. One thing we should mention here is that low stress can also create difficulties.
Responses to stress are conscious efforts to cope with stress. What causes the reactions to stress, is it possible to control it, and how threatening it is are issues that should be emphasized. At the same time, the physiology of stress (SAM) is explained as follows; sympathetic-adrenomedullary nervous system, Cannon’s “fight or flight” response, sympathetic stimulation expression (production of catecholamine towards adrenal glands), effects: increase in blood pressure and heart rate, occlusion of peripheral blood vessels, increase in sweating. (HPA axis); Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome, Hypothalamus secretions, adrenal cortex stimulation.
Internal and external factors of stress are emphasized, internal factors such as negative thinking, high expectation, and disapproval are exemplified, while external factors are given as examples of problems related to business life, constant health problems, basic life changes, and spiritual problems.
Among the measures that can be taken in the assessment of stress are: self-reports of stressors and the changes they bring to life, measures of task performance under stress, measures against physiological changes such as heart rate and blood pressure, and biochemical determinants that make events stressful. While talking about the precautions, it is stated that if we make a habit of knowing when we are under stress and know how our body reacts, we can take action in advance and reduce the stress level and keep the stressors under control.
Some situations and factors can bring a state of stress that is difficult to overcome. But there are also effective ways to cope with stress: learning to say no, not taking on responsibilities that you cannot handle, expressing your feelings, sharing stressors with reassuring people, taking time to rest, doing muscle-relaxing activities such as meditation and deep breathing, doing sports, adding positive aspects of the day you spend. focus and make a list, follow a healthy diet that includes 3 types of food a day, tend to enjoy activities such as reading, listening to music, having a pet, spending time with positive and supportive people, laughing, getting your sleep.
The three types of violence and their definitions, determined by the National Science Council on Child Development, are briefly as follows: Positive stress is the stress that occurs as a result of short-term undesirable events, this type of stress is considered normal, and learning to cope with it is an important part of the developmental process. Tolerable stress is the short-term but more intense experience of undesirable events. Positive stress can contribute to child development, but if the child is deprived of support, acceptable stress can turn into toxic stress and lead to long-term health problems. The maltreatment of children, the source of toxic stress, is an important public health problem. Children cannot fight this type of stress alone and it can cause permanent changes in brain development. The negative effects of toxic stress can only be reduced with parental support.
Studies show that stress experienced in childhood also affects adult life. Studies on Adverse Childhood Experiences are among the studies that should be considered in this regard because they show 1) violence due to stress factors such as child abuse, neglect and exposure to intimate violence, and 2) negative behaviors and health problems in adulthood.
Early diagnosis and treatment of toxic stress, including child maltreatment, reduces long-term effects on health and behavior. Caregivers, teachers and other adults who are in frequent contact with children need to be aware of their situation in order to identify and deal with children who have had traumatic childhood experiences.