Today, copper intrauterine devices

COPPER INSIDE TODAYS TODAY
Copper intrauterine devices (IUDs) are one of the most effective and temporary methods of contraception in our country. Despite its 50-year history in the world, it is accepted as a modern method that continues to be developed even in the 21st century.
The effectiveness and duration of copper-containing IUDs vary according to the model. The amount of copper in them determines the period of protection against pregnancy. Widely used in public institutions Cu T 380 A model up to 12 years It effectively protects against pregnancy. Widely used in private healthcare institutions Multiload 250Cu 3 years, Multiload 375 Cu 5 years It protects against pregnancy for a long time. In these models, bleeding and pain rates are less, and the rates of slip and expulsion are slightly higher.
When the IUDs expire (when the copper in them is gone), they should be changed immediately, as their protection against pregnancy will decrease.
When the intrauterine device is removed, a new one can be applied immediately. There is no concept of resting the uterus.
IUDs can be used from adolescence to menopause.
Women who have not given birth can safely use an intrauterine device.
All IUDs can be applied on any day of menstruation, preferably on the last day. If there is no sexual intercourse, it can be applied on any day of the cycle other than menstruation. In addition, they will protect 98% of pregnancy when applied within the first 5 days after sexual intercourse.
As soon as intrauterine devices are administered, they begin to protect against pregnancy from five days beforehand.
IUD can be applied together with uterine evacuation (abortion). There is no harm in applying an IUD within 15 minutes after the placenta is removed in normal delivery and in cesarean section. They can be safely applied 1.5 months after birth or cesarean section, even before menstrual bleeding begins. Breastfeeding has no objection to the application of an IUD.
Bleeding and pain are the most common side effects of IUDs. After the application of intrauterine devices, bleeding irregularities may occur in the first 3 months. In general, menstruation may be longer and more frequent in IUD users. Painkillers called prostaglandin inhibitors reduce the amount of bleeding by half, but the number of bleeding days remains the same.They can also be used with antispasmodic drugs in groin and low back pain, menstrual pains.
It is necessary to consider the risk of slipping down and expulsion, provided that it is excessive in the first three months after the application of intrauterine devices. When they slide down, they may be asymptomatic or bloody discharge, groin and lower back pain may increase. Therefore, it is important to evaluate it with ultrasonography in the first three months. If there are no complaints or additional findings, annual follow-up is recommended.
When the intrauterine device slides down, it should be changed immediately as its contraceptive protection will decrease. It is rarely seen that the uterus, which we call perforation, is perforated and the IUD passes into the abdominal cavity. It is removed from the abdomen with a small operation using the laparoscopy or minilaparotomy technique.
If intrauterine devices are not applied under sterile conditions, the risk of pelvic infection will increase, especially in the first three weeks. Apart from this, there is no scientific evidence of the opinion that the wrongly known intrauterine device causes ovarian inflammation.
Gonorrhea (gonorrhea) transmitted by sexual intercourse and chlamydia, which is common together, carry the infection to the ovaries and ducts, causing obstruction of the ducts and an increased risk of infertility. IUD is not applied when only these two infections are suspected. Even syphilis (syphilis), hepatitis, HPV infections do not prevent the application of intrauterine device.
Contrary to the common belief, the reddened appearance of the cervix, called a wound, does not prevent the application of an intrauterine device. In addition, the intrauterine device does not cause wounds.
Myomas (benign tumors of the uterus) that do not press on the inner layer of the uterus do not prevent the application of an intrauterine device.
Intrauterine devices do not increase the risk of cancer.
There are studies showing that intrauterine, ovarian and cervical cancers are less common in IUD users..
In addition, there is no harm in using IUD even in uterine and ovarian cancers during the treatment process.
IUDs do not increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Copper IUDs can also be used in women who have had an ectopic pregnancy.
Despite the intrauterine device, there is a 1% risk of pregnancy. When evaluated by ultrasonography, if the IUD is below the gestational sac, it is removed and the pregnancy is allowed to continue if the patient wishes. If the IUD cannot be removed, there is no harm in keeping it in the uterus during pregnancy. When the baby comes out and the placenta separates at birth, the IUD will fall out on its own. In pregnancies that continue in the presence of an IUD, the risk of anomaly (disability) in the baby does not increase, only the miscarriage rate is high.
Regularly updated conformity criteria of the World Health Organization should be followed in IUD application and follow-up.

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