• The thyroid gland is defined as a light brown gland consisting of two lobes. TSH and TRH are hormones that act on the thyroid gland.
• Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH): It is the hormone that enables the synthesis of TSH. The release of TSH is also under the control of TRH.
• Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH):It also controls the retention of iodine and the production and release of T3-T4 hormones.
• Thyroxine (T4) is released inactively from the thyroid glands. The active form of T4 is converted to T3.
EFFECT OF THYROID HORMONES ON METABOLISM
• Its excessive secretion increases the need for vitamins.
• Thyroid hormones may cause tachycardia by affecting myocardium.
• It causes decrease and increase in bowel movements. In its deficiency, constipation is seen.
• In case of abnormality; It is effective in weight gain, involuntary weight loss.
It is the name given to the enlargement of the thyroid gland. The reason is the inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis due to iodine deficiency and the increase in the amount of TSH as a result of the decrease in thyroid hormones.
It causes enlargement of the thyroid gland.
It occurs due to disorders that lead to a decrease in T4 and T3 production. In this case, TSH increases.
In hypothyroidism, which is more common in women, a slowdown in metabolism is observed.
General findings; weight gain, constipation, headache, edema and expressionless face, low body temperature are seen. The skin is cold, dry and pale, and individuals have low tolerance for cold. Hair and nails are dry, their growth rate is low.
• The increase in thyroid hormone levels is called “Hyperthyroidism”.
• General findings; It is characterized by anxiety, irritability, heat intolerance, palpitations, weight loss, diarrhea, weight loss, weakness and increased appetite, and decreased menstrual bleeding. The skin is warm, moist and soft. Patients may have complaints of sweating in the palms. The growth rate of hair and nails has increased and is generally observed as soft and thin.
Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disease of unknown cause. It is defined as the rise of thyroid hormones in the blood as a result of the sudden discharge of thyroid hormones by exposure of tissues to high levels of circulating thyroid hormones.
Some of the people with Graves’ Disease have eye problems. The eyes have come forward as if they were going to come out of their sockets. Other symptoms are signs of hyperthyroidism.
It is defined by the decrease in thyroid follicles and the elevation of anti-TPO and anti-TG.
HT can be seen in various clinical pictures. These can take the form of goiter or hypothyroidism, and alternating hypo-hyperthyroidism.
NUTRITION IN THYRIID DISEASES
In hyperthyroidism Non-iodized salt should be recommended in nutritional recommendations and substances containing high iodine should be avoided. Caution should be given about seafood containing iodine-containing foods and multivitamins rich in iodine.
hypothyroidism iodine restriction is not applied in patients. The most common complication metabolic syndrome should be taken into account in nutritional therapy. The contribution of body weight loss in the treatment of metabolic syndrome is great.
When goitrogenic foods are degraded goitrinsubstance is released, and excessive intake of this substance affects iodine uptake and metabolism negatively and plays a role in the formation of iodine deficiency.
The most important goitrogens are; cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, turnip, radish, spinach. People with hypothyroidism should consume it in a controlled manner.
Zinc is an indispensable element for the synthesis and metabolism of both vital enzymes and thyroid hormones. Zinc deficiency negatively affects thyroid function and the positive effects of zinc supplementation on the effectiveness of thyroid hormones have been confirmed in studies.
Iron deficiency, zinc, selenium and vitamin deficiency also negatively affect the functioning or effect of the thyroid gland. Therefore, if there is any missing micronutrient, it should be discussed with the doctor and dietitian in a teamwork.
Since constipation can be seen in case of hypothyroidism, foods with high fiber content such as vegetables, fruits, legumes and whole grain products should be consumed more frequently.