The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ in the middle of our neck. It can be considered the conductor of our body. The thyroid gland can be visualized very well with ultrasonography. This imaging should be done by Radiologists.
In one of the 2 people in the society, or even slightly higher, there may be abnormal images, which we call a nodule in the thyroid gland, which we can consider as a gland. If these nodules reach a sufficient size, they can also be noticed on palpation. However, nowadays, most nodules are caught before they reach a size that can be noticed on palpation.
Nodules in the thyroid gland are very common. Approximately 95% of these nodules are benign nodules and do not require surgery unless they reach very large sizes and exert pressure on the vessels adjacent to the thyroid gland.
In order to understand whether the nodule is benign or malignant, it is necessary to take cell samples from the nodule with a thin needle. The name of this procedure is Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy. Abbreviated as FNAB.
It is also known as needle biopsy. Cell groups taken with a fine needle are delivered to the Pathology specialist to be examined under a microscope. The pathologist stains and examines the cells using special dyes. If there are findings suggesting cancer in the biopsy, surgery is recommended.
Which nodules should be biopsied? All nodules suspected by an experienced Radiologist should be biopsied. In addition, there are guides published by very reputable international associations on this subject. Decisions should be made within the framework of these guidelines.
In most of the examinations made in state, university and private hospitals in our country, the necessary time cannot be allocated. As a result, the examination is not as detailed as it should be.
For this reason, many radiologists either do not give their opinion on biopsy or recommend biopsy to every nodule. The most important drawback of this is the side effects that may occur after the biopsy procedure. In addition, cases where the pathologist examining the cell samples cannot make a decision can often come across. As a result of this intensity in both Radiology and Pathology, the patient with an ordinary nodule that does not need a biopsy from the beginning finds himself on the operating table.
Thyroid ultrasonography should be performed by experienced physicians who can spare enough time. The radiologist should clearly write whether a biopsy is required for the nodule. The Radiology specialist should perform the biopsy and the Pathology specialist who will examine the cell samples taken during the biopsy should also be present. The results of biopsies performed in many hospitals come in the form of ‘insufficient cells’.
When the pathologist is present during the biopsy, he should immediately examine it under the microscope and decide whether the amount of cells is sufficient.
Thyroid ultrasonography performed without adequate care may even cause you to have unnecessary surgery. You may lose your thyroid gland, the conductor of your body, for no reason.