Things to Know About Diabetes

  1. What is diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus (Diabetes mellitus) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar, which develops due to the lack of insulin hormone or resistance to the effect of insulin.

Today, the incidence of diabetes has increased in proportion to the increasing prevalence of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet with high calories are also important factors for the development of diabetes.

The current data published by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) on the frequency of diabetes in 2021 reported that there are 537 million adults (20-79 years old) worldwide. It is estimated that this number will increase to 643 million in 2030 and 783 million in 2045. 3 out of 4 adults with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries.

According to TUIK data, there are approximately 7 million diabetic patients between the ages of 20-79 in Turkey. This figure corresponds to approximately 15% of the total adult population. In other words, one of 6-7 people in Turkey is diabetic.

Diabetes is an important public health problem.

2. What are the Risk Factors for Diabetes? Who Should Scan?

Everyone over the age of 40 should be screened every 3 years .

If people with a BMI ≥25 have one of the following risk factors at a younger age, they should be screened for diabetes even if they do not have symptoms .

  • In people with diabetes in first and second degree relatives,

  • Obesity

  • Those with hypertension, high cholesterol (HDL<35, TG>250), cardiovascular diseases, stroke history

  • Women with a history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

  • Signs of insulin resistance (acanthosis nigricans, skin tag)

  • In those who have previously been diagnosed with latent diabetes,

  • In people with sleep-apnea syndrome,

  • Sedentary lifestyle

– People who have previously been diagnosed with prediabetes, once a year

– Persons diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (gestational diabetes) every 3 years

3. What are the Symptoms?

Classic symptoms;drinking a lot of water, urinating a lot, urination at night, dry mouth, overeating or loss of appetite, weakness, getting tired easily

Less common symptoms;Blurred vision, unexplained weight loss, persistent infections, recurrent fungal infections, especially in the genital area, itching

4. How Do We Diagnose?

-Fasting blood glucose (after 8 hours of fasting)≥ 126

-In the sugar loading test (OGTT); 2. Hour blood sugar ≥200

-Hba1c (indicates 3-month average sugar) ≥6.5

– Any time blood glucose ≥200 and concomitant classic diabetes symptoms

**Diabetes is diagnosed if only one of the criteria is present.**

5. What are the types of diabetes?

There are 4 types of diabetes.

Type 2 DM, It constitutes 90-95% of diabetic patients. It is the most common type. It increased in proportion to the increasing incidence of obesity. It is usually treated with oral antidiabetics (sugar pills). Insulin therapy is used when sugar pills are not enough or in some special cases.

Type 1 DM It usually occurs in childhood. Since insulin secretion in the pancreas is insufficient, only insulin is used in the treatment.

Gestational diabetes (gestational diabetes) occurs during pregnancy. 24-28th of pregnancy. Diagnosis is made with a glucose tolerance test. If sugar levels do not fall to the desired level with lifestyle changes, insulin therapy is given.

in group 4 There are less common types of diabetes. Among these, there are many diabetes subtypes such as MODY, drug-induced diabetes, genetic diseases-related diabetes, pancreatic diseases-related diabetes.

6. Treatment

The most important step of treatment is education. Diagnosis of diabetes seems like the end of life for patients because they do not have enough information about diabetes or they have wrong information. As stated before; 3 out of 4 adults with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries, and the prevalence of diabetes is increasing in direct proportion to the increasing prevalence of obesity. In other words, this shows that type 2 diabetes is directly related to lifestyle. Especially with proper nutrition and a sufficiently active, regular exercise lifestyle, diabetes can be prevented to a great extent. Even if diabetes develops, blood sugars can be kept at target levels.

Obese individuals must change their lifestyle and lose weight.

Proper nutrition is one of the most important parts of treatment.

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