When sperm cannot be found in the semen (azoospermia) due to congenital or acquired problems (genetic, hormonal, mechanical), sperm can be obtained by surgical methods from inside the testicular tissue.
The TESA/TESE procedure is usually performed by a urology specialist under epidural anesthesia. In cases where it is sure that sperm cells will be found in the testicular tissue, the treatment of both partners can be carried out simultaneously, and egg collection and TESA/TESE can be performed on the same day. However, in suspicious cases, sperm search is performed first, and the sperms found are frozen and stored. The freezing process does not harm the sperm cells too much, and with this method, successful pregnancy rates can be achieved without unnecessary treatment stress. After using the required number of sperm from the obtained sperm cells, the remaining tissue sample can be frozen and stored for future experiments.
For people who need TESA/TESE procedure, it is important to make preliminary preparations with hormone tests, ultrasound and testicular examination before the treatment, and to complete the general health check.
Traditionally, ICSI requirements are;
- Group-I: Cases where fertilization could not be achieved in previous IVF trials,
- Group-II: Those with low fertilization rate in previous IVF trials,
- Group-III: Cases in which sperm are to be obtained by surgical methods such as TESA/TESE,
- Group-IV: Those with poor sperm parameters.