Skin tumors and cancers

Surgical diseases of the skin have increased significantly in the last two decades. The main reason for this increase is the increased effect of the sun’s rays on our world. Before the sun’s rays reach the Earth, they filter through the atmosphere and the reaching of harmful wavelengths to the Earth is significantly reduced. Due to the thinning of the ozone layer in the atmosphere, the reaching of harmful wavelength Ultraviolet rays to the earth has increased. These increased harmful rays cause damage to the human skin, which can be considered significantly more than before. These damages cause various skin diseases and even skin cancers, starting with thinning, wrinkling and premature aging of the skin. The way to prevent this is to stay in the sun less and protect our skin with various creams and lotions that have sunscreen properties.

Among these increasing diseases, precancerous diseases and skin cancers are characteristic. Senile, Actinic and Seborrheic Keratoses can be counted as precancerous (pre-cancerous or likely to turn into cancer) diseases.

Skin Cancers are examined under three main groups. These are Basal Cell Cancer, Epidermoid (squamous) Cell Cancer and Malignant Melanoma. These diseases appear more often in people who work in the sun, for example, in farmers, and especially in people with fair skin.

Basal Cell Cancer; It is relatively innocent and is considered not to spread far. It is seen on the skin, especially in sun-drenched places, or as a blister. It can stay silent for years in its location and then grow in a short time. When it is late, it is necessary to surgically remove all the retained tissues, which can result in loss of eyes, lips, eyebrows and jawbones. Therefore, like all cancers, it requires early diagnosis and treatment. It is common in advanced age.

Epidermoid (squamous) Skin Cancer; They can spread to distant lymph nodes and even to distant organs. Since this spread can occur in the very early stages of the disease according to its cellular characteristics, time should not be lost in treatment. It is more common in sun-exposed areas and in advanced ages where sun damage has increased. Early treatment is surgical removal of the diseased area. In cases where this is not possible, Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy are used. The type that occurs on the lip is often seen in smokers, the treatment is partial or complete removal of the lip.

Malignant Melanoma; It is one of the most aggressive types of cancer in the body, it may initially appear as a small mole (nevus) or appear as a change on a found mole. Early diagnosis and treatment is very important because it can spread to nearby and distant organs in the very early period. For this reason, people with many moles (nevus) on their body should be followed by a dermatologist or plastic surgeon at regular intervals, and moles with suspicious changes should be removed by a plastic surgeon. Growth on the mole, discoloration (lightening or darkening), marginal irregularity, change in brightness should be considered suspicious. The presence of the same disease in family members and close relatives is also important. Malignant Melanoma does not necessarily require the presence of moles and there are also types that do not have a dark color (hyperpigmentation).

There are surgical diseases of the skin and subcutaneous layers besides cancers. These are cutaneous moles (nevi); giant nevi, sebaceous cysts, dermoid cysts, fibromas and lipomas, hemangiomas, lymphangiomas. Most of these can be removed with simple local interventions, but Lipomas and Hemangiomas can be evaluated differently depending on their size and location.

lipomas; It can come out of the fat masses in the subcutaneous layers in various parts of the body. Initially, it can be taken with local anesthesia when it is small, if it is deeply located and large, general anesthesia may be required. When it is found in large numbers in the body, it is called Lipomatosis. After being small and quiet for a long time, it can grow in a short time. Transformation to cancer is rare, sometimes it can cause pain and numbness.

hemangiomas; It is a small superficial redness or small swelling seen on any part of the body shortly after birth, many of which grow rapidly within months after birth and involve nearby organs or structures. If the disease is located in the face area, it can cause serious aesthetic and functional problems. It is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor made by blood vessels. Among the various types of hemangiomas are those that spread like a superficial red-burgundy stain (port wine stain) or that show a bulge. Although some of them regress by leaving stains over the years, there is no guarantee of this. Many doctors follow the patient because of the possibility of spontaneous regression, which unfortunately causes the disease to grow. For this reason, it is best to take it with surgery at the very beginning, that is, when it is very young. If it grows, the operation can be very problematic depending on the location. The type of superficial spreading wine stain (port wine stain) can be treated with laser application.

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