SINUSITIS

-WHAT IS SINUS? WHAT DOES IT DO?
Sinuses; These are the air spaces in the bones around the nose. They are grouped into cheek sinuses (maxillary sinuses), forehead sinuses (frontal sinuses), anterior and posterior sinuses between the eyes (anterior and posterior ethmoid sinuses), and intracranial sinuses (sphenoid sinuses). Sinuses open into the nose with small channels.
The inside of the nose and sinuses is covered by a structure called mucous, like a carpet, and this mucosa secretes a secretion called mucus (snot). Approximately 0.5-1 liter of mucus is produced during the day. This mucus produced is carried from the sinuses to the nose by the movements of the microscopic flagella called cilia on the mucosa and moves from the nose to the back of the nasal cavity and then swallowed. Mucus helps the body’s defense system against germs, traps particles and allergens in the inhaled air, plays a role in filtering the air and moistening it before it reaches the lungs. Sinuses also have functions such as reducing the weight of the skull bones, providing sound resonance, and preventing it from reaching the brain by absorbing the impact in traumas.
-WHAT IS SINUSITIS? HOW DOES IT OCCUR?
Inflammation of these spaces called sinuses is called sinusitis. Causes such as obstruction of the nasal discharge channels of the sinuses, incomplete functioning of the cilia, inability to transport the mucus, and changes in the mucus content or consistency predispose to sinusitis.
The most common cause of sinusitis is viral upper respiratory tract infections. Mucosal edema, which obstructs the sinus openings due to allergies, is the second important cause of sinusitis. Causes that narrow or obstruct the sinus discharge channels such as intranasal bone and cartilage curvatures (septum deviation), intranasal flesh growths (concha hypertrophies), polyps and intranasal tumoral masses may cause sinusitis.
-WHAT DO THE COMPLAINTS OCCUR?
Nasal congestion, inability to smell, yellow, green or bloody nasal discharge, fever, pain around the eyes according to the involved sinuses, cheek pain that can be confused with toothache, feeling of pressure on the face, face or headache that increases with leaning forward, pain in the back of the head, bad mouth odor, postnasal drip and accordingly nausea and cough symptoms can be found.
-HOW IS SINUSIT DIAGNOSED?
In line with the complaints, the diagnosis is made by performing an ENT examination, endoscopic detailed intranasal examination and, if necessary, additional imaging methods.
-HOW IS SINUSITIS TREATED?
Sinusitis treatment is to provide antibiotics and opening the holes of the sinuses to the nose. Antibiotic treatment should last 10 days, sometimes even 15-20 days. Tablets or sprays used for decongestant purposes to open sinus holes, painkillers to relieve pain, and if there are allergies, appropriate drugs are given. Decongestant sprays should not be used for more than 5 days.
If sinusitis has become chronic and there are obstructions in the sinuses that cannot be opened with medication, it should be treated surgically.
– IN WHICH SITUATIONS IS SURGERY NECESSARY?
Surgery is rarely needed as new-onset sinusitis (acute sinusitis) usually responds to drug therapy. However, sinusitis surgery is required in cases such as sinusitis that lasts for a long time and does not respond to drug treatment (chronic sinusitis), the presence of meat or bone curvature (deviation) in the nose, the formation of polyps due to allergies, or in cases where complications develop.
-HOW IS THE SURGERY FOR SINUSITIS?
Sinusitis surgeries are performed with endoscopic methods through a camera inserted into the nose. Thus, it is easier to work in a narrow and dark place such as the inside of the nose, and sinusitis is cleared by correcting the factors that cause sinusitis. The most important purpose of the surgery is to open the mouth of the sinuses and to clean the inside of the sinuses. Depending on the course of the surgery and the condition of the disease, it can be performed with or without buffering.
-WHAT CAN HAPPEN IF SINUSITIS IS NOT TREATED?
Some complications may develop due to the spread of inflammation. The most important ones are the spread of inflammation into the eye socket and diseases that can go up to blindness, abscess formation by spreading to the cerebral membrane or brain, abscessing of the inflammation in the sinus and bone inflammation.
-HOW CAN IT BE PROTECTED FROM SINUSITIS?
Factors such as air pollution, allergens and cigarette smoke have a negative effect on the sinus mucosa. In addition, upper respiratory tract infections due to viruses spread rapidly in crowded and poorly ventilated environments and become an important factor in the formation of sinusitis. For this reason, good ventilation of living and working environments and not allowing smoking in these environments play an important role in protection from sinus infections. The dryness of the inhaled air increases the risk of sinusitis by causing darkening of the nasal and sinus secretions and preventing their discharge from the sinuses. For this reason, attention should be paid to the humidity of the living and working environments.

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