Sexually Transmitted Infections

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were called venereal or sexually transmitted diseases until recent years. However, the World Health Organization recommended that the concept of infection (contamination) be used instead of the concept of disease, since the person carrying the disease agent can transmit the agent to another person without any symptoms.

The number of infectious agents that can cause disease is more than 30, and new microorganisms are constantly added to this list. STI agents: Viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, protozoa and ectoparasites. AIDS, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Genital Herpes, and Genital Warts are viral STIs, while Syphilis (syphilis), Gonorrhea (gonorrhea), Chlamydia, and Soft Shank are bacterial STIs.

STIs, which affect approximately one sixth of the world’s population, cause serious health problems, cause social problems and impose a heavy economic burden. Although efforts to prevent and control STIs have increased in recent years, they remain insufficient and STIs are turning into a growing public health problem that threatens the society.

The agents that cause STIs can be transmitted by oral, anal or vaginal routes, as well as through blood or close body contact. Although the individual carries the infectious agent for years, he or she can transmit the agent to his sexual partner or partners without any symptoms, unknowingly.

Symptoms that may occur in connection with STIs:

  • Frequent and painful urination

  • Fatigue, weakness and weakness

  • Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea

  • Headache

  • Skin rashes on the body and especially on the arms and legs

  • Chills, chills and fever

  • Pain in muscles, joints

  • Painful sores on the genitals

  • Herpes and wart-like structures on the genitals

  • Discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse

  • Itching in the genital areas

  • Swelling in the lymph nodes associated with the genital area

  • Menstrual irregularities, breakthrough bleeding and vaginal discharge different from normal in women

  • In men, yellow or green discharge from the penis, difficulty urinating, swelling of the testicles

In recent years, some factors have increased the incidence of STIs significantly. These factors are: resistance of disease-causing organisms as a result of too frequent and unnecessary use of antibiotics, the spread of sexual relations outside of marriage, the beginning of sexual intercourse at a younger age, the deterioration of the natural balance with changing lifestyles, and the increase in the use of chemical substances.

In the fight against sexually transmitted infections, it is very important to provide education and raise awareness about how a healthy sexual life should be. In the prevention and control of diseases, it is important to make the diagnosis as quickly and accurately as possible, to carry out an effective treatment, to control individuals at certain intervals, to expand the use of condoms, to teach the appropriate and correct use of condoms, to determine the sexual partners of individuals with disease factors, and to treat them and call them for controls.

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