Sexually transmitted diseases

Sexually Transmitted Disease, What is Sexually Transmitted Infection?

sexually transmitted diseases (STD, STD), or sexually transmitted infections (STI) , STIs) usually transmitted through sexual contact; Infections that are transmitted from person to person through the blood, semen, vaginal and other body fluids of bacteria, viruses or parasites, in other words, inflammations. Sometimes these infections can also be transmitted from mothers to their babies during pregnancy or childbirth, or through blood transfusions or unclean needles. Sexually transmitted infections may not always show symptoms. It’s possible to get a sexually transmitted disease from people who seem perfectly healthy and don’t even know they have an infection.

What are the Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Disease?

Sexually transmitted diseases, or sexually transmitted infections, may present with some symptoms as well as giving no symptoms. Sometimes, it can be noticed that the man also has this disease with the symptoms that occur in the spouse or sexual partner. Sometimes the disease progresses insidiously and can appear suddenly when it creates bigger problems.

Symptoms of STDs usually appear a few days after sexual intercourse or exposure, although sometimes there may be no symptoms for years, depending on the type of infection. Therefore, it is recommended that those who are sexually active, in suspicious and unprotected relationships, or with symptoms of illness should consult a doctor. In addition, it is important for men and women who are considering their first sexual experience to consult a doctor and get some advice.

Sexually Transmitted Disease, Sexually Transmitted Infection symptoms are:

  • In the genitals; Sores or swellings, lesions in the penis, mouth or anal (rectal area)

  • Burning and pain when urinating

  • Colored or colorless discharge from the penis, urethra, and weight

  • Unusual or smelly vaginal discharge in a woman

  • unusual vaginal bleeding

  • pain during sex

  • painful, swollen lymph nodes in the groin,

  • Sometimes stomach ache

  • fever, chills

  • Rash skin lesions on the body, hands and feet

Germs that cause Sexually Transmitted Disease

  • BACTERIA: Gonorrhea, syphilis and chlamydia are Sexually Transmitted Diseases caused by bacteria.

  • PARASITES: Trichomoniasis is a Sexually Transmitted Disease caused by a parasite.

  • VIRUSES: The most common sexually transmitted diseases caused by viruses are HPV, genital herpes and AIDS (HIV).

  • Other types of infections – hepatitis A, B and C viruses, shigella infection and giardia infection – can be spread through sexual contact, but it is possible to get these infections without sexual contact.

Risk Factors of catching Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Anyone who is sexually active is at some degree of risk of contracting an STD. Factors that increase this risk include:

  • Unprotected sex and sex: Vaginal or anal intercourse by an infected spouse or partner who is not wearing a condom significantly increases the risk of contracting an STD. The use of unsuitable or poor quality condoms can also increase this risk.

  • Having sex with multiple partners:The more people you have sex with, the greater your risk of contracting an STD.

  • Having previously had a Sexually Transmitted Infection-STI:In this case, it makes it much easier for another STD to take hold.

  • Being raped or assaulted: Forced to have sexual intercourse is also a risk factor for STI. In this case, it is important to see a doctor immediately for examination, treatment and emotional support.

  • Alcohol and drug use:Uncontrolled alcohol consumption or recreational drug use: Substance abuse and habituation can impair healthy decision-making and make them more willing to engage in risky behaviors.

  • Use of dirty needles: Using the same needles over many people to inject drugs carries a particular risk of spreading many more serious infections, including AIDS (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

  • Being young:The newly emerged STD, namely Sexually Transmitted Infection Half, is seen in people between the ages of 15 and 24.

  • Transfer from mother to baby: Certain STDs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, HIV and syphilis can be passed from mothers to their babies during pregnancy or childbirth. Sexually Transmitted Disease (STI) passed on to babies can cause serious problems and even death.

Complications of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Possible effects and complications of STDs include:

  • Chronic chronic pains in the groin

  • pregnancy complications

  • Eye inflammation and inflammation

  • Joint inflammation, Arthritis

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease, PID,

  • Infertility

  • Heart disease

  • Certain HPV-related cancers: Although it manifests itself most frequently with genital warts (condyloma) in men, it is accused as the causative agent of many cancers in men and women. There are more than 200 known types of HPV and 15 of the sexually transmitted HPV types are carcinogenic-cancer-causing. is being evaluated. It is known to cause HPV infection, cervical cancer, penile, tongue, oro-nasopharynx, larynx and tonsil cancers, and it can occur years after being infected with the virus.

Ways of Protection from Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD, STD)

The ways of protection from Sexually Transmitted Diseases, namely Sexually Transmitted Infections, are as follows:

  • Avoiding sexual intercourse:The most effective way to protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases is not to engage in such sexual intercourse, to stay away.

  • Choosing a partner that you are sure is free of STDs:Another reliable way to avoid STDs is to stay in a long-term relationship where both people only have sex with each other and the partners are uninfected.

  • Testing for sexually transmitted diseases before intercourse:It may be appropriate to avoid vaginal and anal intercourse until both partners are tested for STDs.

  • Vaccination:Getting vaccinated early before sexual contact can also be effective in preventing some types of STDs.

  • Continuous and correct use of condom and dental sets: Using a new latex condom or set of teeth for every sexual intercourse, whether oral, vaginal or anal, can be effective. Rather than condoms made from natural membranes, latex condoms are more effective at protection, but keep in mind that they offer less protection for those with exposed genital sores such as HPV or Herpes. Also, birth control methods such as birth control pills or intrauterine devices (IUDs) do not protect against STDs.

  • Do not use excessive alcohol or drugs:If you are under the influence of alcohol and drugs, you are much more likely to take sexual risks.

  • Communicating with the partner: Before any serious sexual contact, communicate with your partner or partner for safer sex. Make sure you specifically agree on what activities would be appropriate.

  • Being circumcised: For men, there is evidence that circumcision reduces the risk of contracting HIV from an HIV-infected woman by up to 60%. Male circumcision can also help prevent transmission of genital HPV and genital herpes.

  • Pre-exposure drug (prophylaxis) use: Two combination drugs can be used to reduce the risk of HIV infection in people at high risk. These may be combinations of emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) and emtricitabine plus tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (Descovy). The use of this combination drug can be used only for AIDS prevention, if there is no existing HIV disease. These reduce the risk of contracting HIV by 74-99%.

How is Sexually Transmitted Diseases Testing and Diagnosed?

Physical examination:If you have had suspected sexual intercourse and your current symptoms and symptoms indicate that you have a sexually transmitted disease (STD) or sexually transmitted infection (STI), the first step to diagnosis is a physical or pelvic exam to look for signs of infection such as a rash, warts, or urinary tract discharge. control is done.

Tests for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) or a sexually transmitted infection include:


  • Blood tests: Blood tests are used to diagnose many sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, AIDS, and syphilis.

  • Urine samples. Urine testing, culture, and PCR analysis may be required for the diagnosis of some STDs. Panels on sexually transmitted diseases can be made.

  • Discharge and bodily fluid samples: If you have open genital sores, your doctor may test samples of fluid and wounds to diagnose the type of infection.

The screening tests for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) or a sexually transmitted infection are as follows: Sexually transmitted disease tests performed on a person who does not have any signs of a sexually transmitted disease are called screening.

How Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treated?

Sexually transmitted disease (STD, STD) or a sexually transmitted infection (STI, STI) caused by bacteria is usually easier to treat. Infections caused by viruses can be managed, but not always cured. If she has a sexually transmitted infection during pregnancy, getting treatment right away can prevent or reduce the risk of the baby getting an infection.

Treatment of sexually transmitted disease (STD, STD) or sexually transmitted infection (STI, STI) is done as follows

  • Antibiotics: Antibiotics, usually given in a single dose; It can treat many sexually transmitted bacterial and parasitic infections such as gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Gonorrhea and chlamydia infection can often be treated at the same time. It is necessary to use the given drugs regularly and in full dose, treatment that is not taken in the appropriate dose and time may cause the disease to become chronic. It is important to avoid sexual contact during treatment. In order to prevent re-infection, it is useful to be tested again within 3 months, especially in women.

  • Antiviral drugs: If you have herpes simplex or HIV (AIDS), an antiviral medication is given. Antiviral drugs can keep HIV infection under control for years. However, it should be kept in mind that it may not be completely eliminated from the body, it may be necessary to carry the virus all the time, and although the risk is lower, it can still be transmitted to someone else.

  • Control tests:After a certain period of treatment, sexually transmitted disease tests should be repeated.

  • Partner Screening and treatment: In the case of STDs, current partners or partners need to be informed of the situation and be informed to get tested, including any other partners from the past three months to a year. It is important that the partners with the disease are also treated.

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