sense of alarm “anxiety”


Anxiety is the feeling of anxiety that comes from within, the reason is unknown, uncertain, and that something bad is going to happen. When we feel the sense of anxiety, especially in our level of consciousness, there is a situation that we perceive as life-threatening or threatening. In another definition, anxiety is our reaction to the events that we define as danger.

There are multiple explanations for the cause of anxiety. These;

– He says that anxiety is basically the product of the inner conflict that the person experiences. The inner conflict mentioned in this statement is experienced between the self and the id, or between the self and the superego. The self (ego) is the structure that provides control between primitive behaviors (lower self) and social morality (superego) in every human being. In line with the pleasure principle that the lower self is fed, the impulses seeking satisfaction are blocked by the realistic and acceptable approaches of the upper self. The self, on the other hand, finds reasonable solutions to the conflict between the two, suppressing the said impulse and solving the problem. This is how the foreign concepts mentioned work. But if this process goes wrong, the ego perceives the impulse as a danger if it cannot find reasonable ways to resolve the conflict. All these processes between concepts are experienced in the subconscious. As a result of conflicts in the subconscious, anxiety comes to the surface of consciousness.

– According to another explanation, anxiety is a learned behavior. Anxiety behaviors can be realized by modeling the family’s reactions with social learning. In other words, anxiety has a genetic nature in the social field.

– In another explanation, the cause of anxiety is not the event itself, but the person’s comments about this event and how they perceive the event. A process involving cognitive interpretation is mentioned. Anxiety occurs as a result of perceiving these events around distorted and unhealthy thoughts.

– Some explanations associate the causes of anxiety with our nervous system. According to these explanations, when we are faced with situations that cause us to experience anxiety, the sympathetic activity of our autonomic nervous system increases and physical symptoms occur accordingly. This means that the situation that causes anxiety activates our system that works outside of our control and our anxiety increases. This explanation also mentions that anxiety has a hereditary predisposition.


In anxiety disorder, 5 sub-headings can be mentioned, each of which contains separate definitions. These are their general definitions;

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: People constantly experience anxiety even if they do not know the reason. It is defined as excessive worry and sadness about events or activities that occur almost every day for at least 6 months. It may show symptoms such as restlessness, excessive excitement or anxiety, difficulty concentrating on thoughts or stagnation, easy fatigue, sleep disorders, muscle tension, and irritability. It has a structure that disrupts functionality in daily life.

2. Panic Disorder: It can be defined by unexpected and recurrent attacks. The anxiety created by the expectation of having a panic attack at any moment is intense. It may be accompanied by agoraphobia. (Intense fear and anxiety about places and events where it is difficult to get help and escape in case of a panic attack)

3. Specific Phobia (Phobias): It is the state of extreme fear, which is generally learned, towards situations and objects that pose little or no danger in reality.

4. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): It can be defined as an anxiety disorder seen after frightening life events. Symptoms include re-enactment and nightmares, excessive focus on the event, easy startle, withdrawal from others, and avoidance of reminders of the event.

5. Social Anxiety Disorder: It is defined as the intense anxiety of being observed in environments where individuals are watched carefully by others or where they need to perform.

is in the form.


Aaron Beck; He defines the thoughts in anxiety disorder as follows;

As soon as the person feels danger, he cannot control his repetitive thoughts, visual schemas about bad events will come to his mind or he continues to tire his mind with verbal concepts. Then, he cannot get rid of the repetitive scary thoughts, so he loses his positive perspective on events. He continues to become more anxious and panicked, losing control. It cannot reveal rational beliefs. As a result, the person begins to generalize the event he has experienced. It perceives a small movement, a small sound, even the simplest change as a threat to itself.

People may think that the events they experience will end in the worst way. That’s why disaster scenarios take up a lot of space in their minds. Therefore, the person feels as if he has lost control of his thoughts. The automatic thoughts that the mind has learned before almost take over your mind.

People with anxiety disorders tend to perceive the risk factors around them more than other people. They feel that they cannot cope with the problems they face, that they are helpless, that they cannot do anything, that they are powerless and alone. In such thoughts, a state of panic can also come into play. As the panic situation increases, the anxiety automatically increases. Due to this cyclical causality, the person cannot get out of the state of anxiety he is in. At this point, some cognitive distortions occur and the state of anxiety is reinforced. Cognitive distortions are catastrophizing, personalization, selective abstraction, arbitrary inference, and overgeneralization.


In general, as in every title, the change of anxiety begins in the language. “How to beat anxiety?” “How to fight anxiety?” “How can I treat my anxiety disorder?” The sentences in the content can put us in a compelling mood in general. These types of sentences are a little more war-like. However, we help the client to get to know himself better and to establish new cognitive schemes during the therapy process. While doing this, the “Cognitive Behavioral Therapy” school is generally preferred in the therapy process. However, this is not the only therapy method. Many schools of therapy can be used. The duration of therapy often varies. Depending on the severity of the person’s anxiety, it may be necessary to have a therapy process between 8 and 10 sessions. In some cases, this may take a shorter time, and in some cases, the number of sessions may be longer. When deemed necessary, the person can also be referred to a psychiatrist by the specialist. Because in some cases, it is necessary to apply medicamentous treatment during the change process of anxiety disorder. However, the important thing is that the person aims the change related to the anxiety disorder. After gaining insight, the change process will come with the support in the therapy process.

It should be noted that; Emotions and cognition are the basic building blocks of human beings. Incorrect schemas related to these can be corrected and the quality of life can be increased.

Psychologist & Family Counselor

Beyzanur Ceyhan

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