Cardiovascular diseases are the most important group of diseases that threaten health in today’s world. Although there are regional differences, it causes functional losses that are responsible for almost half of the deaths and impair the quality of life at a serious rate. Considering the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, one of the most important reasons that predispose to these diseases is a sedentary lifestyle. Regardless of the person’s body weight and metabolic structure, sedentary life is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Of course, with exercise, other risks associated with cardiovascular diseases such as the regression of obesity, the decrease in the density of blood sugars and blood fats are reduced. Since exercise reduces the amount of hormones secreted or aromatized by fat cells by regressing obesity, it reduces the possibilities of cancer development, provides positive contributions to the mental structure of the person through brain neurotransmitters, increases physical capacity with increase in muscle strength, and with the effect of all these, an increase in enjoyment of life and motivation occur.
Sports activities show gradual effects on the heart and vascular structure. Moderate-intensity exercises will be the most appropriate sports activity in terms of both effectiveness and reliability. The increase in the intensity of sports activity, which mainly covers professional athletes, increases the efficiency for conditioning and decreases the reliability in terms of heart health and muscle injuries, therefore, such activities should be started with the opinion of a physician, even if the person is young, and a physician should be consulted periodically. Clubs usually have their athletes screened, but especially young people who go to centers established for activities such as bodybuilding are not examined. Elimination of this deficiency and possible negativities can be achieved through practices such as raising awareness of the society, making the opinion of the physician absolute in the legislations issued for sports centers, and monitoring the athletes during exercise.
Especially in professional athletes, some structural and functional changes in the cardiovascular system develop over time. With dynamic exercises, there is predominantly volume and less pressure load on the heart, which causes changes such as an increase in heart kits and an increase in the diameter of the inner chamber of the heart. The inner cavity diameters of the heart decrease, it has a similar appearance to the disease called hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but the heart functions do not deteriorate. As the volume of blood pumped by the athletes with each contraction of the heart increases, the heart rate slows down. All these changes return with the cessation of the sport.
In summary, exercise is one of the conditions of being healthy, and the limits of safe exercise should be determined, especially for cardiovascular patients.