What Is Normal, What Is Abnormal? Where are the salivary glands located?
The glands are located around the mouth and throat. Major salivary glands, parotid (in front of the ear),
submandibular (under the chin) and sublingual (under the tongue) glands.
All of them secrete saliva into the mouth. The parotid gland is located next to the upper molars, the submandibular gland is located on the tongue.
It secretes saliva from the anterior side under the sublingual gland and many small points at the floor of the mouth of the sublingual gland.
Along with these glands, hundreds of tiny tiny glands appear on the lips, inner cheeks, and all surfaces of the mouth and throat.
salivary gland is present. The salivary glands keep your mouth wet, start digestion and protect teeth from decay.
they secrete saliva.
What Causes Abnormal Glands?
Salivary gland abnormalities that cause clinical discomfort can be grouped as follows.
Obstruction is mostly seen in the parotid and submandibular glands due to stone formation. Complaints
typically seen while eating. When eating, saliva formation is accelerated, but due to congestion
It cannot flow and causes severe pain and swelling, sometimes accompanied by inflammation.
If the stones are not completely obstructed, the glands swell while eating and after a while
they descend slowly, until the next meal. Microbes are easier to find in the accumulated saliva.
they reproduce and cause more severe pain and swelling. If they are not treated in sufficient time, an abscess
they can create.
The most common salivary gland inflammation is ‘mumps’, which affects the parotid gland. most common in children
Although it can be seen in adults, it can also be seen. However, a swelling in the parotid gland region in an adult
If it does, it has a greater chance of being from an obstruction or tumor.
Inflammation resulting from duct stenosis and decreased salivary flow has been mentioned before.
There may also be secondary inflammation of the salivary glands due to inflammation of the adjacent lymph nodes. One of these lymph nodes
the portion is actually above, in, and below the parotid gland or near the submandibular gland
they are found. When the lymph nodes become inflamed, they produce redness and painful swelling. Tumors of lymph nodes and
They also enlarge due to edema.
Primary tumors of the salivary glands initially manifest as painless swelling:
Tumors are rarely found in more than one gland and can be found in the front of the ear, inside the mouth, palate, floor of the mouth, cheeks and
They can be found on the lips.
These swellings should be evaluated by ear, nose, throat and head and neck surgeons.
Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands grow rapidly, are painful and interfere with facial movements on that side.
they can prevent it. These complaints should be investigated immediately.
The salivary glands also swell in some specific diseases. Patients usually have dry eyes and mouth.
This may be accompanied by joint rheumatism. Diabetes can cause swelling, especially in the parotid gland.
Usually bilateral parotid gland swelling is also seen in alcoholics.
How does your doctor diagnose?
Salivary gland diseases are diagnosed by a careful history, physical examination, and laboratory tests.
If a stone blockage is suspected in the major salivary glands, the mouth where the gland is opened is anesthetized and the duct is anaesthetized.
It may be necessary to expand and see if the stone is removed. X-ray before such a procedure.
where the calcified stone is can be determined.
If a mass is detected in the salivary gland, X-ray should be taken with computerized tomography.
it will be useful.
With this tomography, whether the mass really originates from the salivary gland or from an adjacent lymph node.
Fine-needle aspiration biopsy, which can be done in the exam room, is helpful in many cases. This test
The accuracy is between 80% and 90%. Examining the process by taking a piece from the mass with a skin incision,
It is not recommended to do it in the examination room. Damage to the facial nerve that travels with the parotid gland
Open biopsy should be performed in the operating room due to the possibility of
Treatment of Salivary Gland Diseases
It is divided into two main parts: with medicine and with operation. The type of treatment depends on what the problem is. If
If the problem is caused by a disease related to the whole body, it should be treated. This is other
may require consultation with physicians in the branch. If the disease is related to congestion and inflammation
antibiotics are used. Sometimes channels need intervention.
If a mass has formed inside the salivary gland, it may need to be removed. within the parotid gland
most of the masses are benign. When the operation is required, great attention should be paid to the facial nerve passing through this gland.
must. If there is a malignant tumor in the parotid gland, a mass without damaging most of the facial nerve
removable. Radiation therapy is often recommended after the operation. This treatment is typically
It is started after four to six weeks, during which time the tissues are expected to heal.
The same principles apply to the minor salivary glands in the mouth and throat. Selim Diseases is the best single
It is treated with surgery on its own, while malignant tumors are treated with both surgery and radiation.
they require treatment. If the mass is a lymph cancer in the salivary gland, then
Of course, the treatment method varies. This type of treatment method is again most effective in the ear, nose, throat and head.
The neck can be managed by surgery.
In summary, there are many causes of salivary gland diseases. These diseases can be treated with both medication and surgery.
are treated as Such treatments are performed by experienced ear, nose, throat and head and neck surgeons.