Pulmonary Tuberculosis

What is tuberculosis (TB)?

The disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is called tuberculosis disease or simply tuberculosis.

How is tuberculosis transmitted?

The main mode of transmission of tuberculosis is the respiratory tract. The entrance gate for the tuberculosis bacillus to the body is the lungs. After the tuberculosis bacillus enters the lungs and reaches the alveoli through the respiratory tract, a process begins that may result in the emergence of tuberculosis disease. Tuberculosis is rarely observed in the upper respiratory tract. Apart from the respiratory tract, tuberculosis can also be transmitted through the gastrointestinal tract. Tuberculosis bacillus can be transmitted to humans from the gastrointestinal tract by eating the meat of animals infected with M. bovis.

Forks, spoons, towels, etc. used by sick individuals. tuberculosis is not transmitted.

How does tuberculosis disease occur in the body?

Coughing, speaking, sneezing, etc. of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Droplets containing tuberculosis bacillus they leave in the air can dry in the air and become droplet nuclei and hang in the air. After inhalation (inhalation into the lungs) of these droplet nuclei containing bacilli, the bacilli reach the alveoli. In more than half of the people, the tuberculosis bacillus is eradicated from the body with nonspecific immunity (non-specific immunity to that microbe, natural immunity). Such people do not have disease or latent tuberculosis infection. Tuberculin skin tests of these individuals are negative. In some people, tuberculosis bacillus-specific immunity (specific immunity) develops against tuberculosis bacillus. In a significant number of individuals with specific immunity, the bacillus is trapped in the body and there is no disease. Such individuals do not have disease, but tuberculin skin test is positive. In a few of these individuals who develop specific immunity, the specific immunity is insufficient and the bacillus continues to multiply and the disease occurs. The resulting tuberculosis is called primary tuberculosis. Primary tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis that occurs mostly in childhood. Pulmonary tuberculosis may occur later in life in a minority of individuals who have suppressed and limited the bacillus in their bodies with specific immunity, and therefore have positive tuberculin skin test and at the same time are healthy. This form of tuberculosis is called adult type or postprimary tuberculosis.

What are the symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis?

In patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, respiratory system symptoms such as cough, sputum, bloody sputum, shortness of breath, chest pain, and systemic symptoms such as fatigue, fatigue, night sweats and weight loss may be observed. Not all symptoms are expected to be present in all patients. More commonly, patients with extensive pulmonary tuberculosis may have all the symptoms.

How is Pulmonary Tuberculosis Diagnosed?

Pulmonary tuberculosis can be diagnosed if there is a positive sputum, gastric lavage (gastric juice) or bronchial lavage smear in patients with an appearance compatible with pulmonary tuberculosis on chest X-ray (or computed tomography of the thorax). 7-10 days of broad-spectrum non-specific antibiotic therapy (which has no effect on tuberculosis bacillus) is given to patients whose chest X-ray (or computed tomography) is compatible with pulmonary tuberculosis and whose sputum (gastric lavage or bronchial lavage) smear is negative. In cases where there is no improvement with this treatment and diseases other than pulmonary tuberculosis are excluded, it may be decided to start tuberculosis treatment by a pulmonologist.

The definitive diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is made by the production of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in sputum, gastric lavage (gastric juice) or bronchial lavage culture.

Is there a cure for pulmonary tuberculosis?

There is a cure for all drug-sensitive forms of tuberculosis.

The treatment of tuberculosis with drug resistance should be evaluated under a separate heading.

How is pulmonary tuberculosis treated?

Tuberculosis is treated with medication. The duration of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment is at least 6 months. In the treatment, 4 types of drugs are used in the first 2 months. The next 4 months are continued with 2 types of drugs. Tuberculosis disease in adults is not treated with fewer drugs. If pulmonary tuberculosis treatment is tried with 1-2 types of drugs, the disease cannot be cured and drug-resistant tuberculosis may develop. The treatment period of pulmonary tuberculosis cannot be shortened with existing drugs.

What is latent tuberculosis infection?

Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is defined as a positive tuberculin skin test or interferon gamma release test (Quantiferon, ELISPOT) without any form of tuberculosis disease. Individuals with LTBI are considered healthy.

Why is latent tuberculosis infection important?

Approximately 5-10% of individuals with LTBI may develop tuberculosis at some point in their lives. This rate is much higher in immunocompromised individuals.

Related Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.