Adolescence is a transitional stage and conflict is inherent in it. Adolescence, a second chance given to humanity, is an important period when personality is formed and important steps are taken for the rest of life. Adolescence means questioning yourself first and foremost. It is an important phase in which basic physical and spiritual transformations take place and these transformations will guide the person for the rest of his life. Major physical changes occur during adolescence and these physical changes are followed by psychological and social changes. Puberty begins with the signs of puberty. To reach puberty means to gain the ability to reproduce. There are rapid changes in the body of the adolescent that change his height and structure, improvements are seen in his mental structure and interests, and sexual development is completed physiologically in both sexes. In this period of rapid and great change, adolescents may have difficulty in adapting to changes. This situation is considered by adults as non-compliance and rebellion.
Adolescents have experienced communication difficulties with adults in every period. Much has been said about puberty until today. Information on puberty has been found in Western sources since the 13th century. Even thousands of years ago, Aristotle drew attention to the ever-changing, demanding, callous characteristics of young people. It has been written in many books that Socrat criticizes the young people’s disrespect to their elders and their cruelty. In every period, adults have forgotten their own adolescence and criticized the behavior of adolescents. In other words, the phrase ‘were young people like this in our time’ has not only been a word specific to our day, but a complaint that has been spoken by adults to young people for thousands of years.
The period of childhood and adolescence was first studied by the famous thinker and educator Rousseau in his work Emile, published in 1782. One hundred and thirty years after this book, Hall wrote the first scientific work on adolescence. Hall’s two-volume book Adolescence was influenced by Darwin’s theory. He argued that every human being goes through the stages from primitiveness to civilization in his own life. In other words, the child, who is a barbarian being, will later become civilized and become a modern person. According to Hall, personality begins to take shape at puberty and is reborn as a member of the human race during adolescence. For the first time, Hall emphasized that this period was a period of great turmoil and storms.
John Locke emphasized that besides the innate factors, environmental factors are especially important in the personality development of the child. In the 1925s, as the behaviorist school became more active, Watson claimed that if any healthy child was given to him, he could make him a merchant, an artist, a doctor, a beggar, or a murderer. According to Watson, environmental factors were so important in personality development. In the following years, with the influence of Watson and Locke, the attention of psychologists turned to the early childhood years and the influence of the family on the child. In addition, psychoanalysis, pioneered by S. Freud, focused on the child in its early stages and emphasized the importance of early childhood. For these reasons, adolescence period has been neglected for many years.
Studies conducted in the following years revealed the importance of adolescence. For example, Bronson et al. determined their behavior by applying tests to children aged 1-16, and these children took the same tests when they reached the age of 30, and it was found that the previously determined features continued in adulthood.
S.Freud’s daughter, Anna Freud, who brought it back to the agenda with the adolescence period and gave it the value it deserves. In his article in 1958, “I am discussing the issue of adolescence after a 22-year hiatus. Some studies have been carried out on adolescence during this period, but it seems that the situation is not encouraging when examining adolescence in an analytical context. It can be said that adolescence is treated like a stepchild, especially when compared to studies conducted in early childhood.” After these words, research on adolescence increased and adolescence began to be studied in depth by various scientists.
According to Anna Freud, all conflicts experienced in childhood are revived in adolescence. For example, addiction experienced in infancy; in adolescence he oscillates between being dependent and being independent. Adolescents sometimes act like a baby and don’t want to take responsibility, and sometimes they try to prove to everyone that they are adults now. A. Freud accepted the faltering of young people as normal and said that this ambivalence is an adjustment process against normal and internal development.
Masterson, who has worked with adolescents for many years and has done a lot of research on this subject, said that there are some differences between the personality structures of adults and adolescents. (1958) These differences; While the adult has been able to suppress his subconscious impulses, the adolescent has not yet fully acquired this ability. The adult is the person who has found certain value judgments and has adopted them, but the adolescent is in search of value judgments that will be suitable for him and he is experiencing a faltering. Adults are able to work in a job and earn their own income and take full responsibility, whereas adolescents are emotionally and economically dependent on their parents.