psychological resilience

The concept of resilience is defined as a person’s ability to survive as a result of traumatic experiences. Psychological resilience is actually personality traits that support a person’s positive adjustment under difficulty and stress.

The main characteristics of people who can cope with trauma; ‘determination’, which indicates the will to re-establish and continue life, ‘self-confidence’, which indicates belief in one’s self and abilities, ‘meaningful’, which indicates believing that life has a purpose, and ‘existential loneliness’, which is the understanding of accepting that the life path is unique to the individual.

In the studies on the concept of resilience, the comparison of those who are successful in the face of difficulties and those who are not, and various personal factors of those who are successful have been investigated.

From this point of view, mental ability, calmness, autonomy, self-confidence, being sociable, effective coping and communication skills are considered as protective factors. In addition, the support of the close family circle and the close bond with at least one person are also important factors. is seen as.

Studies have suggested that one of the main characteristics of individuals with high psychological resilience is social orientation (Werner & Smith, 2001). In this respect, it is seen that people with high psychological resilience have good social skills, make an effort to be in social environments and leave a positive impression on others. Particularly in the literature, the increasing importance of external support systems, adaptation and the effects of the social environment in the explanation of the concept of resilience highlights the qualities of being social and adapting in terms of personality traits. In this context, ‘being social’, which is one of the features that make up the structure of extraversion, is a feature related to the concept of psychological resilience in terms of positive social adaptation (Werner & Smith, 2001). In addition, ‘competitiveness’, another feature that explains extroversion, is a feature that also increases the capacity of individuals to cope with negativities, although it indicates a certain degree of distance from others in terms of interpersonal relations (Cederblad et al., 1995). In this respect, ‘competitiveness’ can also be seen as a feature that supports resilience in the face of difficulties, struggling with difficulties and coping with personal aspects in terms of psychological resilience. When evaluated together with the explanatory findings obtained in this framework, it can be said that extraversion is a very basic quality in terms of resilience processes. Neuroticism, another explanatory personality trait, is associated with negative self-esteem, low self-esteem, and high levels of anxiety and depression (Costa & McCrae, 1990). However, neurotic people; They are weak and fragile in coping with stressful situations, they perceive even ordinary events as a threat to themselves, they are disappointed.

In addition, ‘competitiveness’, another feature that explains extroversion, is a feature that also increases the capacity of individuals to cope with negativities, although it indicates a certain degree of distance from others in terms of interpersonal relations (Cederblad et al., 1995). In this respect, ‘competitiveness’ can also be seen as a feature that supports resilience in the face of difficulties, struggling with difficulties and coping with personal aspects in terms of psychological resilience. When evaluated together with the explanatory findings obtained in this framework, it can be said that extraversion is a very basic quality in terms of resilience processes. Neuroticism, another explanatory personality trait, is associated with negative self-esteem, low self-esteem, and high levels of anxiety and depression (Costa & McCrae, 1990). However, neurotic people; They are weak and fragile in coping with stressful situations, perceive even ordinary events as threats to themselves, often despair when they are disappointed, and make more negative evaluations in their perceptions of themselves (Hettema, Neale, Myers, Prescott, & Kendler, 2006).

It is a personality trait that expresses obeying the rules in work, working systematically, being orderly and regular (McCrae & Costa, 1997). In the studies conducted, it has been claimed that people with high psychological resilience act more planned; It has been stated that they work more, are more success-oriented, and thus, they continue their success throughout their careers thanks to these planning and organizing skills, even in the face of many social obstacles (Werner & Smith, 1992). In addition, people with high self-discipline have high psychological resilience; It can be argued that this is related to the fact that these people are more careful and careful, more disciplined, and put more effort into success. In addition, in a study dealing with the sub-dimensions of resilience, it was revealed that there is a higher correlation between the structural style dimension of resilience and self-discipline compared to other personality traits (Friborg et al., 2005). In parallel with these findings, the findings of the current study determined that people with high self-discipline are more resilient in this process, especially thanks to their skills such as making effort, planning and organizing the future, which are related to achievement processes.

Another finding revealed in the study is that there is a same-sided relationship between compatibility and resilience, which is explained by positive qualities in interpersonal relationships such as empathy, closeness, trust and cooperation. It is suggested that people with high agreeableness exhibit helping behaviors even when the conditions are not suitable, and thus they show helping behaviors without needing another motivation source (Graziano, Habashi, Sheese, & Tobin, 2007). This finding indicates that people with high agreeableness, mostly looking at the positive side of life, are more confident about the results of their behavior and have more hope for the future. Considering the same-way relations between social resources and adaptability personality traits (Friborg et al., 2005), the present findings; It can be interpreted as cooperative, empathetic and reliable people establish wider social networks and thus become more psychologically resilient.

The last personality trait that has a role in explaining resilience is openness to development. People with high openness to development are seen as dreaming, adventurous, original, creative, curious, and inclined towards their own thoughts and feelings (McCrae & Costa, 1997). The basis of psychological resilience lies in the power of individuals to recover and continue their lives after obstacles, uncertainties, setbacks or various difficult life experiences. Various environmental effects force people to change throughout their lives, and the constant personal tendencies of people against these pressures play the most fundamental role in achieving these processes. Openness to development, which is one of the personal fixed tendencies that people have, shows the general unchanging reactions of the person against the change processes. In this context, it can be stated that people with high openness to development are more flexible in the face of changes and have higher adaptability skills. The result reached in the current study revealed that there is a one-way relationship between openness to development and resilience, and showed the importance of adapting, being flexible and finding creative solutions in change processes. Another aim of the study is to determine which dimensions play a fundamental role in the resilience structure when associated with personality traits. As a result of the analysis made for this purpose, it was seen that the dimensions of self-perception, social resources and social competence came to the fore. Self-perception, which is related to self-awareness, essentially consists of personal perceptions of who the person is. When associated with personality, fixed personal tendencies that play a role in the prominence of the dimension of self-perception are neuroticism and self-discipline factors. Neuroticism and self-discipline, which represent two of the dimensions related to socialization processes within the personality structure, are essentially characteristics related to the ability to maintain emotional and motivational stability. In this context, it has been determined that self-perceptions shaped by social processes are directly affected by these characteristics, and individuals’ self-perceptions regarding resilience are more positive with low neuroticism and high self-discipline characteristics. Thus, with the results obtained, it has been revealed that the ability to maintain the emotional and motivational stability of the person in the personality processes plays a fundamental role in the perceptions of the person towards himself/herself in psychological resilience.

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