Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. The largest known risk factor for prostate cancer is participation. Individuals with a first-degree relative with prostate cancer have at least twice the risk of the disease, and if they have two or more first-degree relatives, the risk increases 5-10 times. In patients with hereditary prostate cancer, the disease begins 6-7 years earlier. Eating habits, sexual habits, alcohol consumption, exposure to ultraviolet rays and occupational factors affect the process of prostate cancer.
While high intake of animal fats increases the risk of developing prostate cancer, the lycopene found in tomatoes plays a protective role against prostate cancer. Prostate cancer can manifest itself with complaints such as frequent urination, burning in urination, weak urination, bleeding in the urine, and inability to urinate in men over the age of 45. The most important tools in diagnosis are digital rectal examination and PSA (prostate specific antigen) blood test. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) is performed when necessary. If in doubt, a TRUS-guided prostate biopsy should be performed to make a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. Positive biopsy rate is 6-25% in cases where one of these three tests is not normal, 18-60% in cases where two of them are defective, and 56-72% in cases where all three are not normal.
The most important parameters in deciding the treatment are the patient’s age, PSA level, prostate cancer histological score (Gleason), the stage of the cancer, and the patient’s preference. An increase in PSA and a high Gleason score increase the likelihood of recurrence after a permanent treatment. High PSA, T2b-T3 stage, poor differentiation, perineural tumor invasion are closely associated with lymph node spread. Bone scintigraphy shows us a possible bone metastasis (dissemination) and computed tomography shows us whether there is any other organ spread within the abdomen and the lymph node status. While the treatment options in localized (limited) prostate cancer are monitoring, active surveillance, radical prostatectomy surgery, radical prostatectomy after hormone therapy, radiotherapy, brachytherapy, cryotherapy, HIFU, in advanced prostate cancer, hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy are the treatment options. (with hormone therapy). Hormone therapy is the most appropriate option in prostate adenocarcinoma with distant spread, but we also apply chemotherapy in hormone-resistant metastatic disease.