1. Perception Test for Children – CAT
The Child Perception Test (CAT) was developed by Psychiatrists and psychologists Leopold Bellak and Sonya Sorel Bellak and was first published in 1949. The test is a projective assessment based on a picture-story test called the Thematic Perception Test (TAT). It is a type of personality assessment tool. It is applied individually to children between the ages of 3-10. In the test, children are asked to create stories through picture cards. One of the main objectives is to reveal the conflicts that children experience with these stories and to determine which defense methods they use to cope with them. CAT can be administered by a trained professional (psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker, teacher or specially trained pediatrician), which takes 20-45 minutes to administer. After carefully relating to the child, the practitioner shows the child one card after another in a certain order and encourages the child to tell a story. In test evaluation, as in all projective tests, there are no right or wrong answers. Therefore, there is no numerical score or scale for the test. Each story is carefully analyzed to reveal the child’s underlying needs, conflicts, feelings, attitudes and behavior patterns. The main theme of the story, the main character’s needs, impulses, worries, conflicts, fears, and the child’s understanding of the outside world are variables that are evaluated in the interpretation.
2. Thematic Perception Test – TAT
It was developed in 1935 by Murray, Morgan et al at the Harvard psychology clinic. It is a projective test applied to individuals over the age of 14. The test consists of 30 pictures and one blank card. During the application, test takers are asked to write a story with a beginning, middle and end about the pictures they see. While the person is creating a story, questions such as “What is happening now?”, “What are the characters in the picture thinking and feeling?” “How did the events come to this point?”, “What is the result?” can be asked by the practitioner. The test allows the person to reflect his inner world through pictures. and emotional conflicts. People find that they can express their feelings that they cannot express directly through cards. It allows people to discover their own life experiences by interpreting the situations in which they have three and have difficulty in making sense of them. At the same time, the test can be used as an assessment tool in cases such as personality and thought disorders. CAM is described as the test that best reflects the dynamics of interpersonal relationships in children, adolescents and adults.
3. Rorschach Test
Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach became interested in inkblots in 1911 and published his masterpiece Psycho-diagnostics in 1921. There are different interpretations of the Rorschach test. One of them is the American school and the other is the French school. Turkey recognized the Rorschach test with Psychologist Anastasiadis. For Anastasiadis, in his own words, ‘The Rorschach is the x-ray of the human soul’. The Rorschach test can be applied to everyone from 7 to 70, but it is important to know that the interpretations of the tests performed in children and adolescents differ from the interpretations and evaluations of adults. The test materials consist of 10 psychodiagnostic cards. These cards, called planch, have figures consisting of ink stains on them. The practitioner notes the answers given by the test taker, then interprets the answers with a specially prepared scoring and reporting method. There is no time limit application. With this test, inferences can be made about the individual’s personality background, participation in the world, affect, ability to experience self and the other, as well as the personality dynamics underlying this structure. The Rorschach test application should be administered by an experienced psychologist trained in this field.
4. Louisa Duss Psychoanalytic Stories Test
It is a projective personality test applied individually to children and adults. It is a test consisting of ten unfinished stories applied to determine the conflict in the child. Unfinished stories are read to the test taker and asked to complete the stories. The stories used in this test are structured in a way that children can understand and be interested in. Each story or heroes in the story relate to one or more complexes in psychoanalytic theory. During the experience, it is important to dwell on the questions that correspond to some complexes and to ask questions by deepening them according to the meaningfulness of the answers received. Test to be applied
“Now I will tell you an unfinished story. You will complete the back. Say whatever comes to your mind.” It starts with the instruction. Bird story, wedding anniversary story, lamb story, funeral story, horror story, elephant story, made-up item story, travel story with mother and father, news story, bad dream story are unfinished stories. This test is one of the best designed techniques for children to detect and solve problems. There is no limited application period.
5. The Goodenough Harris Draw Human Test
The test was developed by the American researcher Goodenough. It is a performance test that aims to evaluate the intelligence of the child through the pictures made by the child. It is a test that can be applied to children aged 4-14, individually and in groups. The child is asked to draw a picture of a person. Direction: “I want you to draw a picture of a person on this piece of paper. Draw everything as beautiful as you can. “ is in the form. There is no time limit. The test has two subtests, male and female. The equivalent of each piece drawn in the picture is 1 point and the child’s mental age is calculated based on the points he/she gets.
6. Rotter Sentence Completion Test
Developed by JB Rotter and JE Rafferty in 1950, the Rotter Sentence Completion Test is a projective personality test consisting of 40 unfinished sentences. The test has separate forms for adults, children, and university students. Two different instructions are generally used in the test. In the first, he is asked to write a sentence immediately by writing the first thoughts that come to his mind, while in the second, he is asked to make sentences that will express his own feelings. The test assesses attitudes towards family, personality traits, and social and sexual attitudes. The scoring system of the Rotter sentence completion test for university students was developed by Rotter, Rafferty and Schachtitz (1949). The answers given to the test are scored by giving values ranging from 0 to 6 according to the sample answers. The total score obtained shows the compliance status of the test taker.
7. Beier Sentence Completion Test
Sentence completion test, which is one of the individual recognition techniques, is among the projective tests. It is a test to understand the feelings and thoughts that the individual cannot share. In this test, the individual expresses his interests, attitudes, desires, expectations, troubles, etc., with the way he completes the missing sentences. reflects your thoughts and feelings. It is used when it is desired to obtain information about the inner world of the individual. The test has two forms, A and B. Form A is administered to children aged 8 to 16 with 56 missing sentences. Form B, on the other hand, is applied to older children with 67 missing sentences. Since it is a projective technique, it requires expertise. Individual or group application is possible. By reading the instruction, the individual is asked to complete the missing sentences. The test is evaluated by being processed into the analysis form. It is determined that the sentences are positive, negative and neutral, and they are written in the form as + – 0. Positive emotional expressions about the situation are positive,
Negative emotional expressions related to the subject are considered negative and irrelevant to the sentence, and expressions that do not express positive or negative feelings are considered neutral. While interpreting the test, attention is paid to which areas of the analysis paper have more negative emotion expressions. However, each statement of the individual should be emphasized. The individual is taken to counseling for situations that are found to be a problem.