Pregnancy and nutrition

Pregnancy; We can say that this is the most important time period in a woman’s life when a balanced diet is required. In pregnancy, which is a process in which the energy requirement gradually increases and weight gain accelerates even if the diet is fixed; Inadequate nutrition not only poses a risk to infant health, but also causes problems for the mother to maintain her pregnancy. Conversely, gaining excess weight during pregnancy brings many risks for both the developing baby and the mother. Therefore, a balanced and adequate diet is very important during pregnancy.

As a nutrition policy in pregnancy; Food with additives (salami, sausage, sausage), canned food and raw meat (eg, raw meatballs) should not be consumed as much as possible and natural nutrients should be given priority. Alcohol and cigarettes should be avoided, tea, coffee and cola consumption should be reduced, and freshly squeezed fruit juice, ayran or herbal teas should be preferred instead. Again, one of the most important issues; ESPECIALLY ABOUT NUTRITION, IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT THE PEOPLE AND THE CLOSE ENVIRONMENT DO NOT PRESSURE ON THE PREGNANCY WHO IS ALREADY GOING FROM A DIFFERENT PERIOD. It should be kept in mind that a natural, balanced and regular diet is correct as much as possible, and forcing the pregnant woman to consume foods and amounts that she cannot tolerate can lead to bigger problems.

Nausea and vomiting, especially in the first 3 months of pregnancy, can be very persistent in some pregnant women and may even require hospital treatment. In cases of not very severe nausea; As soon as you wake up from sleep, it may be beneficial not to get out of bed immediately, but to lie down for 15-20 minutes and to eat saltine crackers and rusks during this time. Again, eating less solid foods as often as possible during the day and avoiding fatty foods will reduce the severity of nausea and vomiting.

The energy requirement of the woman increases due to pregnancy. This increase is approximately 350-500 calories per day, and the average daily energy requirement of the pregnant woman rises to 2200-2500 calories. Of course, when calculating the calories that the pregnant woman should take; Many parameters such as age, weight, physical activity are taken into account.

It is ideal for a pregnant woman to gain an average of 9-12 kilos in singleton pregnancies and 17-21 kilos in twin pregnancies throughout the entire pregnancy. The pre-pregnancy weight of the person is taken into account in calculating the required weight to be gained during pregnancy. Ex; Body Mass Index (Weight/height in square meters-kg/m2) A woman over 25 is expected to gain a maximum of 11-12 kilograms during pregnancy, while it is normal for a thin woman below 20 to gain 14-18 kilograms during pregnancy. On the contrary, for an extreme woman with a body mass index above 30, even gaining 5-9 kilos during pregnancy may be sufficient.
Extra 10-20 g per day to the diet of a pregnant woman. protein should be added. Proteins, which are the most important elements in the baby’s organ development and growth; It can be obtained from meat, milk and dairy products, eggs, fish, chicken and legumes.

Energizing fats play a role in the absorption of vitamins from the intestines. Especially liquid oils are of great importance in the development of the nervous system of the growing baby. Care should be taken as excessive fat consumption will increase weight gain. Omega-3 fatty acids obtained from nuts such as fish, green vegetables, almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts; They contribute to the development of the nervous system and brain. For this reason, it would be good for the pregnant woman to consume fish twice a week, and to eat all kinds of green vegetables as she wishes. Nuts should be taken in small quantities.

Elements such as iron, zinc, iodine, and calcium play a major role in fetal development and growth during pregnancy. For example, an iron-poor diet leads to anemia, which can lead to premature or low birth weight babies. For this reason, even if the pregnant woman eats regularly, 20 mg of iron should be added to the diet daily. Iron is the most; It is found in foods such as red meat, eggs, green vegetables, offal, legumes. Since iron absorption is reduced by drinking coffee, tea, and cola, these beverages should not be drunk during meals. Taking vitamin C increases iron absorption.

Calcium plays a very important role in the bone formation of the developing baby. Lack of calcium in the diet can lead to osteoporosis and dental caries, as it will be obtained from the mother’s bones. For this reason, the pregnant woman will need to take an average of 500mg of calcium per day in addition to her normal requirement. Calcium; It is rich in milk and dairy products, green vegetables, nuts and legumes.
Zinc deficiency; 15 mg per day, as it may lead to pathologies such as growth retardation, anomaly, stillbirth. It is appropriate to take zinc. Zinc; It is abundant in milk and dairy products, fish, red meat and eggs. Again, since iodine deficiency can cause stillbirth, miscarriage and anomaly, the use of iodized salt should be encouraged. But it should not be forgotten that excessive salt will be a risk for hypertension.

In folic acid deficiency; There is an increased risk of abnormalities in the brain and spine, called neural tube defects. Because; It is important to take folic acid for 3 months before pregnancy, to maintain it in the first 3 months of pregnancy, and to consume foods rich in folic acid such as green vegetables, eggs, milk and dairy products, and cauliflower during pregnancy.

Constipation increases during pregnancy, especially due to decreased bowel movements due to hormones. Consumption of pulpy food, dried apricots, fresh fruits and vegetables reduces constipation. Drinking plenty of fluids also helps relieve constipation.

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