Postpartum (postpartum) depression

The lifetime prevalence of major depression in women is 10-25%, and this rate is 1.5-3 times higher than in men (Yaman et al 2009). This difference between the sexes in mental disorders is due to the differences in physiopathology and etiology interacting with biological and psychosocial factors (Kısa and Yıldırım 2004). Unlike men, women experience depression frequently in reproductive periods (puberty, pregnancy, postpartum period, and menopause) because of their biological and developmental characteristics (Kısa and Yıldırım 2004, Ocaktan et al. 2006).

Although pregnancy and childbirth are accepted as physiological phenomena, maternal health can be adversely affected during pregnancy and in the postpartum period (Karaçam and Taşkın 2004), which can trigger the onset of depression in women (Sevindik 2005). The postpartum period, called the postpartum period, begins after the end of labor and the birth of the baby, placenta and membranes, and covers a six-week period in which all systems return to their pre-pregnancy state. In the postpartum period, retrogressive and progressive changes occur in the mother. Psychological behavioral changes are also observed in the mother, who tries to adapt to these rapidly occurring changes (Taşkın 2005).

While most of the women adapt easily to the physiological, psychological and social changes that occur due to pregnancy and childbirth, mental disorders occur in varying levels of severity in some women (Gülseren 1999, Karamustafalıoğlu and Tomruk 2000, Karaçam and Taşkın 2004, Nur et al 2004, Sünter et al. 2006). The concept of postpartum mental disorder is used to describe mental disorders that occur in the postpartum period (Kısa and Yıldırım, 2004). Postpartum mental disorders are seen in three forms with varying prevalence, clinical course and approach; postpartum sadness, postpartum depression and postpartum psychosis (WHO 2008a, Marakoğlu et al 2009). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), postpartum depression, both psychotic and non-psychotic major depression and mania, which begins in the postpartum period, are classified in the mood disorders section and within four weeks postpartum to be specified as “postpartum”. should begin (APB 1998). postpartum depression; It is important because of the burden it brings to the risk-sensitive infancy period, its negative effects on the mother-infant relationship, and its serious long-term consequences (Ocaktan et al 2006, Sabuncuoğlu, Berkem 2006).

In postpartum depression, along with the symptoms of other types of depression, symptoms specific to this depression are also seen: the mother thinks that she cannot take care of herself or the baby, especially in the first hours of the morning, feeling that the energy hits the bottom, crying all the time, experiencing guilt or inadequacy, focusing attention on a subject. Difficulty in the subject, even the smallest events make the person very angry, thoughts of harming the baby and / or self, not being able to sleep at night and / or wanting to sleep during the day, loss of appetite or eating excessive amounts of food, staying home and wanting to stay away from people, on the head, etc.) not paying attention, experiencing sexual reluctance, etc. Although there is no complete consensus among studies on its etiology, it is reported to be effective in psychosocial factors as well as hormonal factors.

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