Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

For PTSD to occur, the person must first be exposed to or witnessed a traumatic event. The feature that distinguishes this traumatic event from negative life events; death, serious injury, or the self or threat of sexual violence. Traumatic events can be natural disasters or they can be caused by human factors such as traffic accidents, violence, rape and torture. However, it can occur as a single, short-term, unexpected event such as traumatic events, natural disasters, traffic accidents, which can also be defined depending on time, as well as chronic conditions such as childhood abuses, domestic violence, ongoing wars, and continuous deprivation.


PTSD symptoms are broadly classified into four categories.

  1. Intrusive, Interfering Memories and Re-experiencing

The person may recall unwanted, distressing memories about the traumatic event, have nightmares, and experience flashbacks with images that come to mind. When the person encounters the stimulus that reminds of the traumatic event, he may give intense and distinctive emotional and physiological reactions. These involuntary traumatic memories give the impression that the person is experiencing the traumatic event in the ‘here and now’ with the same vividness, rather than an event that happened in the past.

  1. Avoidance

As the person experiences re-experiencing with involuntary thoughts, they try to avoid distressing emotions, thoughts, memories, and physical sensations related to the traumatic event and the environmental stimuli that trigger them.

  1. Negative Thoughts and Emotions

After the traumatic event, exaggerated negative changes are seen in the thoughts and mood of the person. Negative evaluations and expectations of oneself, other people and the world may occur or be reinforced if any. For example, beliefs such as ‘I am a bad person’, ‘no one can be trusted’, ‘The world is a completely dangerous place’ may occur.

  1. Overstimulation and Responsiveness

These symptoms include extreme irritability and outbursts of anger. This usually manifests itself in the form of physical or verbal assault on other people and objects. The person may engage in reckless or self-destructive behavior. You may be alert all the time, easily startled, and have difficulty concentrating. In addition, problems such as difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep or restless sleep may be experienced. This may be due to the person not being able to calm themselves enough to fall asleep or trying to avoid nightmares while sleeping.


The primary method used in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder is psychotherapy. Various types of psychotherapy, also called talk therapy, can be used to treat both children and adults who show symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. There are different types of psychotherapy available for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. .

  • PHARMACOLOGICAL THERAPY: In the treatment guidelines created for TSS, pharmacotherapy is considered as the second choice after psychotherapy is considered as the first choice.

  • EVIDENCE-BASED PSYCHOTHERAPY: Cognitive behavioral therapy, Long-term exposure therapy, and Cognitive processing therapy are evidence-based models.

  • EMDR: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. The aim of EMDR therapy is to provide desensitization by reprocessing the disturbing memories of the past, to deal with current situations that trigger or increase distress, and to show positive behaviors developed with positive beliefs and emotions in the face of similar problems to be encountered in the future.

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