Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine and metabolic diseases among women of reproductive age. Although its frequency has increased in recent years, this hormone disorder is seen in approximately one out of every 10 women. It can be seen at any age from the first years of adolescence when menstruation begins. Although the exact cause is not known, familial-genetic factors, dietary habits and environmental factors are thought to be effective.
Menstrual irregularity, especially menstrual delays, is often the first symptom. In this disease, where male-type hormones increase, it can also cause problems such as increased hair growth, acne, oily skin, weight gain (insulin resistance) and male-pattern hair loss. In addition, it can cause ovulation problems, negatively affecting fertility and causing infertility. Less commonly, darkening of the skin, headaches and depression may occur. However, it should be known that not every menstrual irregularity is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
In cases where polycystic ovary syndrome is thought, a full clinical evaluation should be made by taking the patient’s history and performing a detailed examination. Detection of polycystic ovary structure in the ovaries by ultrasonography helps in the diagnosis. Then, the diagnosis can be clarified with hormone tests. After the examinations, treatment and follow-up are planned according to the mild, moderate and severe disease.
Numerous benign small cysts form in the ovaries. Hormones secreted from these cysts cause complaints about polycystic ovary syndrome.
Weight control is the first step in treatment. As a result of the evaluation, treatment is planned for hormonal disorders and related complaints. The problem is tried to be resolved with regular use of medication according to the main complaint or the type of hormonal disorder. Birth control pills and menstrual-regulating hormone drugs are used in the treatment. Since the expected effect from hormone therapy will be late, drugs should be continued for at least 6-12 months. In addition, losing weight under the supervision of a dietitian due to insulin resistance and weight gain may facilitate treatment and help shorten the time of using medication. Achieving a healthy weight is often enough to eliminate menstrual irregularity and ovulation problems on its own. Complaints such as hair loss, male pattern hair growth, oily skin and acne may need to be treated by a dermatologist. Laparoscopic surgical treatment may also be required in patients who have ovulation problems and are planned for treatment to have a child.
Early diagnosis of the disease and early initiation of treatment not only facilitates treatment, but also completes the treatment process without allowing other complaints to occur. If left untreated, hormone changes in the body can cause secondary diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, uterine cancer, depression, fatty liver, diabetes and infertility after a long time.