The first step to avoid risks during pregnancy starts with planning before pregnancy. Pregnancy should first be a planned action, when couples decide to have a baby, that is, when they feel ready to have a child mentally and sociologically, they should definitely go to an obstetrician and get counseling.
Is it possible to avoid risks during pregnancy?
Avoiding risks during pregnancy should actually start before pregnancy. Getting pregnant should be a planned action, when couples decide to have a baby, they should consult an obstetrician and get counseling. You should be informed about the risks before you become pregnant, and one week after the menstrual period, you should apply to the doctor with the suspicion of pregnancy and be followed up. Many pregnant women wait to go to the doctor after 1 week of their menstruation, and at that time they miss their chance to catch ectopic pregnancies early and to intervene in time for miscarriage threats. Since pregnancy risks continue until postpartum, they should not lose contact with their physician until the 40th day after birth.
What are these risks?
Risky pregnancies have two dimensions: risks arising from the mother and the fetus. However, the mother and fetus are in such a close relationship that risks for one often carry high risks for the other during pregnancy. Gestational age is one of the most important risks for the pre-pregnancy process arising from the mother. The ideal gestational age is between the ages of 20-30. Although the boundaries are pushed by the developing technology, pregnancies under the age of 18 and over the age of 35 carry a high risk. Because the frequency of genetic diseases increases with age, the risk of exposure to chronic diseases increases, and the mother’s resistance to the increase in physical load that may occur during pregnancy decreases. Since mothers under the age of 18 cannot complete their physical and mental development, they experience pregnancy risks more intensely. High blood pressure is also an important risk factor in the pre-pregnancy period. Mothers with high blood pressure are more susceptible to problems related to the overload of the cardiovascular systems during pregnancy. In addition, when pregnancy is complicated with blood pressure, it can cause vital problems for both mother and baby. Diabetes can also prevent conception. The deteriorated metabolism of the mother during pregnancy also creates an additional burden for the mother and increases the frequency of structural anomalies in the fetus, and may cause many problems for the babies during and after birth. Severe anemia of the mother, systemic diseases such as heart, kidney and rheumatic diseases, being extremely weak or overweight, alcohol, smoking, regular drug use, and presence of fibroids are important risk factors.
Can the risks also occur after conception?
Of course. Gestational blood pressure and the complications that may develop due to it, gestational diabetes, increase physical load for the mother and cause the mother’s organs to be under pressure due to the fact that more than one baby takes up space in the abdomen. Multiple pregnancies, pregnancy-related forms of some rheumatic diseases due to endangerment of life, premature birth of the mother’s waters, obstruction of the birth path by the spouse of the baby, congenital defects in the mother’s womb are the risks that develop during pregnancy.
When and how are these risks identified?
Structural and chromosomal abnormalities that may occur in babies are the most important risks. For this reason, families should definitely have the 11-14 week evaluation test and the 18-23 week 2nd level ultrasonographic evaluation to determine the problems. Among these problems, those that can be treated in the womb should be treated, suitable conditions should be provided for babies that require medical or surgical intervention after birth, and families should be counseled for anomalies that are not compatible with life and protect them from shocks that may occur after birth. In fact, when the pregnancy control and routine tests to be performed during this period are added to the 11-14 week evaluation test and 18-23 week detailed ultrasound, a general impression can be obtained about the risks that may develop. This period is the two most important steps of all risky pregnancy screenings. And these two tests are meaningful if they are done in experienced hands and of good quality.
Is there anything to do next?
Pregnancies carrying risk with more sophisticated methods should be followed up with more sophisticated methods compared to the risks detected during this period, and other pregnant women should return to routine pregnancy follow-ups.
What can be done to reduce risky pregnancies?
As far as possible, it should be decided to give birth at an age above 18 years and under 35 years of age and at a socio-economically and psychically appropriate time. The physician should be given complete information about chronic diseases and genetic problems in the family, a balanced diet should be given during pregnancy, controls should not be interrupted, 6-7. From the first month, baby movements should be counted regularly. (The baby should play at least 10 times a day.) In case of watering, bleeding or genital discharge during pregnancy, a doctor should be consulted immediately. Families with the means should not neglect the 11-14 week evaluation test and the 18-23 week detailed ultrasonographic examination.
What are the limits of technology in determining pregnancy risks today?
With the surprisingly developing technology and knowledge, we can now scan for chromosomal anomalies by measuring the thickness of the baby’s nasal bone, nape and jaw bones. By measuring uterine blood flows with Color Doppler ultrasound, we can predict that there may be gestational blood pressure (pregnancy poisoning) and growth and developmental retardation in the fetus. By measuring the baby’s cerebral blood flow, we can monitor the degree of anemia while the baby is in the mother’s womb, or we can determine the oxygenation of the baby in the mother’s womb by examining some of its vessels. With the laser method, we can operate on blood leaks between twins in the womb. Using cameras as small as pencils, we can view the baby in the womb and perform some operations on the baby in the womb.
Are there any exciting developments in this field recently?
In recent years, it has been determined that the cells of the fetus in the mother’s womb are mixed with the mother’s womb. From this point of view, these cells can be detected by some special methods and the genetic structure of the baby can be evaluated by taking a simple blood sugar from the mother. Diagnosis can be made without the need for (risky procedures such as entering the mother’s womb with a needle, sampling amnios water or taking a biopsy from her husband). Studies carried out to date have shown that if the searched chromosomal disorder says it does not exist, it does not exist, but if it says there is a 2% margin of error, then invasive procedures should be performed. Technological developments related to this process are developing in a dizzying way in a short time, maybe in the near future, invasive diagnostic procedures will be very rare in 10 years. we will be needing.