Personality Disorders

The concept of personality has been discussed, defined and studied in different ways by many theorists. Although there is no single agreed-upon definition of personality, it is in the most general and simple sense. personality ; It can be defined as a different, consistent and structured form of relationship that an individual establishes with both his internal and external environment, and this definition includes many features. Accordingly, personality differentiates the individual from others; shows consistency in behavior at different times, in different places, in similar environments; It is a structure consisting of many interrelated units and plays a decisive role in the relations it establishes both with itself and with its environment. Personality is shaped by the interactions of innate characteristics such as temperament, upbringing and cultural factors from an early age and is highly resistant to change.

The debate on whether environmental characteristics or genetic effects play a role in the development of personality has lasted for many years, but today it is widely accepted that environmental characteristics and the innate hereditary characteristics of the person are both effective. From a structural point of view, temperament includes the biological and hereditary aspects of personality; character, on the other hand, includes the social and cultural dimension of the personality.

According to the definition of the American Psychiatric Association, personality disorder is an ongoing pattern of internal life and behavior that deviates significantly from the culture in which a person lives. This pattern is common, inflexible, begins in adolescence or young adulthood, persists over time, and causes distress with impaired functioning. Personality traits constitute personality disorders only when they are inflexible and disruptive and cause significant impairment in functioning or subjective distress (APA 1994).

In DSM, personality disorders were grouped into three clusters according to the similarities of their descriptive features. While Cluster A composed of paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders basically includes strange and unrelated features; Cluster B features of Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, and Narcissistic personality disorders include being dramatic, impulsive, and inconsistent; Cluster C, which consists of Avoidant, Dependent and Obsessive Compulsive personality disorders, contains intensely anxious and fearful personality traits.

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