What is Percutaneous Drainage (Closed Drainage)?
A needle or tube placed in an organ (lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, biliary tract, urinary tract, etc.) or the fluid collected in or around a structure in the chest or abdominal cavity under the guidance of imaging methods such as ultrasonography, computed tomography or x-ray It is the process of being taken out of the body. This processing percutaneous drainage (closed drainage) name is given. In developed countries, this procedure is called “pinhole surgery”.
Percutaneous drainage can be performed in two ways: “aspiration” and “catheter drainage”. When it is applied with a needle and the liquid is discharged, ” aspiration”, when applied as a temporary catheter placement “ Catheter Drainage ” is named. Your physician who will perform the Percutaneous Drainage procedure will decide which method is suitable for you.
This method can be applied directly as a stand-alone therapeutic or sometimes to create suitable conditions for a possible surgical operation (pre-surgery). Sometimes it can be done as an additional treatment to assist medical treatment (drug therapy).
How to Perform Percutaneous Drainage:
The area of fluid accumulation closest to the skin and most suitable for entry is determined, and this area is anesthetized with local anesthesia. However, if your physician who will make the attempt deems it necessary, he will be able to apply the procedure by giving you “pain reliever and sleep-inducing” medicine. After numbing or anesthetizing, a catheter is often placed so that the fluid can flow into a bag outside the body, after the fluid accumulation is drained with a needle guided by the guide imaging method. Whether the procedure is successful or not will be confirmed by ultrasonography and x-ray controls immediately after the procedure. After the procedure is completed, pressure will be applied to the entry site until the bleeding stops. If the catheter is placed, the catheter will be fixed to the skin with a suture and a bandage will be applied to this area. This catheter will remain in place until the treatment is completed, and the catheter will be removed when satisfactory drainage is achieved as a result of follow-up and intermittent controls.
What Are the Risks of Percutaneous Drainage Procedure?
Although it varies greatly depending on the general condition of the patient, other existing system diseases, the body area to be operated, the organ, the fluid to be drained (content, consistency, number, size, etc.) and the characteristics of the diseases treated, the rate of percutaneous drainage is 80-85% in centers with experience. It is a successful operation. In addition, factors such as the patient’s compliance with the procedure, catheter care in the post-procedure period, and patient follow-up also affect the success of the procedure.
Since it is an invasive procedure by nature, it has rare but well-defined side effects. Despite the utmost care and attention, undesirable side effects (complications) related to the intervention may occur at a rate of approximately 10% in experienced centers.
Matters and complications to consider:
·Mild pain (a few hours after the procedure) and small bruises at the site of the procedure.
Injury, perforation, internal or external bleeding or infection in the access tract, the organ or the surrounding organs or structures
Infections that can rarely lead to germ mixing (sepsis) into the blood
Rarely, nausea, pruritus, urticaria, hypotension, fainting, heart rhythm disturbances, allergic reactions (e.g. swelling of the mucous membrane of the larynx, asthma attacks, circulatory disorders or shock) have developed against the contrast agent or local anaesthesia.
In cases where the diaphragm or lung membranes are punctured with a needle, the development of air accumulation (pneumothorax) between the membranes surrounding the lung, which can cause the lung to collapse
· If the disease called “cyst hydatid (canine cyst)” is treated, anaphylaxis (a serious allergic reaction that can lead to death) and undesirable spread of the cyst, called sowing, to the surrounding organs or structures may occur.
· The operation may fail partially or completely and may not be completed. In this case, it may be necessary to resort to another alternative treatment method (medication or surgery).
· Some side effects are unpredictable, unknown in whom and when they will develop. Permanent damage or death may occur during or after the procedure due to patient factors, anesthesia, failure of the procedure or complications.