Pedodontics (Pediatric Dentistry)
Pedodontics is the science related to the structure, diseases, preventive and curative treatment of the oral and dental region and facial sub-area of children. Dentists related to pediatric dental health are called “pedodontists”.
When do teeth start to erupt?
In babies, the first tooth begins to erupt at about 6 months. However, delays or early eruption of teeth can often be observed. Late eruption of teeth is generally associated with genetic predisposition; however, systemic diseases that delay tooth eruption should not be ignored. These diseases are thyroid, parathyroid and growth hormone deficiencies that prevent growth and development in general.
Newborn babies have tooth buds. Buds (germ) of all primary teeth and first permanent molars at birth (six year old female)mounds were formed.
Teeth that will last 4-8 months:
If there is a slight ridge in the upper incisors, these areas indicate that the upper right and left lateral incisors are erupting. The lower and upper middle incisors continued. The driving order is first the upper central incisors, then the upper lateral incisors, then the lower lateral incisors.
Teeth that will erupt between 8-11 months: All lower and upper middle and lateral incisors have erupted.
Teeth that will last 11-15 months: All lower and upper middle lateral incisors have erupted. The upper lateral milk incisors erupt 12 months before the lower lateral milk incisors. Then the first milk molars begin to erupt.
Teeth that will last between 15-21 months: When the child is 18 months old, milk canine teeth begin to erupt.
Teeth that will last between one and a half to two and a half years:
The second milk molars of the lower and upper jaws have also erupted. Root calcification of the milk teeth is completed one year after the eruption of the crown. The permanent first molar erupts at the age of six. The six-year-old tooth erupts behind the existing milk teeth at the age of 6 years. Children and parents confuse six-year-old teeth with milk teeth. Before the full eruption of these teeth, only the chewing surface can remain in place for months. Food deposits cause caries. Sometimes gingivitis occurs.
What are the symptoms of teeth eruption in children?
During the eruption of milk teeth, some general and regional changes are observed in babies. These are loss of appetite, weight loss, diarrhea, restlessness, increased drooling, itching and redness in the gum area.
There is no treatment method to eliminate these findings. However, tooth gel can be used to feed the baby comfortably and relieve pain. Also, some syrups and teether products can be used to relieve itching.
When should your child’s first visit to the pedodontist be?
Children should be taken to the dentist for a check-up after the first tooth eruption. After that, a visit to the dentist should be repeated every 6 months for control. The clinical examination of the child by the dentist has two stages:
Stage 1: Extraoral Examination
In the head-face examination, the size, shape and proportions of this region are observed. Any swelling, asymmetry, mandibular retraction or protrusion of the mandible in children older than six years of age are examined. Palpation and inspection of the swelling, determination of its softness and lymphatic examination should be performed. is passed. Pain and sounds are evaluated. Exophthalmos, blue sclera, droopy eyelids and nasal congestion should be evaluated in the eye, nose and sinus examination, if any.
Stage 2: Intraoral Examination
This examination includes the examination of the teeth and soft tissues while the mouth is open, and the observations made when the teeth are in the closing position. The examination starts with the internal and external examination of the lips. Then the buccal mucosa, frenulum, hard palate, pharynx, sublingual, region and tongue are examined. acute and chronic mite (fistula)or check for swelling.
Dentist’s advice to parents?
Parents are informed about the child’s oral and dental health. It is recommended to have it examined by a pedodontist or dentist every six months.
What should be done if the permanent tooth erupts while the milk tooth is in the mouth?
It is most commonly seen in the lower anterior teeth on intraoral examination. “Ectopikeruspion” abnormal eruption of the tooth. Permanent incisors and canines are prone to ectopic eruption. This may cause premature root rot of the milk cutters. The early thawing of the posterior roots of the second molars is another example of ectopic pruning.
Ectopic eruption usually occurs between the ages of 5-8 years. Eruption is suspected in a 7-year-old child if there are missing primary canines or unerupted permanent molars.
Ectopic eruption in the lower anterior teeth resolves spontaneously when the milk cutters fall or are pulled. There are many treatment options for ectopic teeth, from simple wires placed between teeth to orthodontic appliances. Displacement forces are applied to the teeth in order for the teeth to erupt from the appropriate places. For this purpose, the child is directed to the dentist.
When should brushing start?
Dental care, which begins in infancy, constitutes the first steps in the formation of preventive education and dental care that will be required throughout life. It is thought that the microorganisms that cause “StreptococusMutans” in general, the group of microorganisms that cause dental caries, are generally passed from mother to child in a period of 9 – 36 months. Therefore, the dental health of the child and the dental health of the mother are very closely related. Oral care in babies should start with the first tooth eruption.
Mouth and teeth cleaning should be done by the mother with a clean piece of cloth. Toothbrush for children can be used from 1 year old. Considering that the child cannot rinse the mouth, tooth brushing can be done without toothpaste or by using low fluoride children’s pastes. If it is thought that the child cannot perform an effective tooth cleaning, the toothbrush should be used by the parents. After brushing the teeth, the tongue surface must be brushed.
In the first examination, the medical and dental history of the baby is listened. Intraoral examination is performed at the first visit of the patient and the patient’s susceptibility to dental caries is evaluated. Development, fluoride requirement, habits other than normal nutrition (bottle, pacifier, etc.) trauma protection; The patient is guided according to the effects of oral hygiene and eating habits on the teeth. The first visit to the pedodontist or dentist is important in terms of obtaining information that can be useful for the baby throughout life.
What are the precautions to be taken for tooth decay in children?
The first thing to be done to prevent tooth decay is to have good oral hygiene. For this purpose, teeth should be brushed at least 3 times a day for 2 minutes. As an aid to toothbrush, dental floss and mouthwashes can only be used after the age of 5 according to the recommendation of the dentist. One of the methods with proven effectiveness in preventing tooth decay should be “fluoride” application.