Developmental psychologists have long been interested in how parents influence child development. However, it is very difficult to find true cause-effect relationships between certain parental behaviors and children’s later behaviors.
Some children who grow up in dramatically different environments may later grow up to have a similar degree of personality. In contrast, children who share a home and are brought up in the same environment can grow up to have very different personalities.
Despite these difficulties, researchers have noted that there are links between parenting styles and the effects of these styles on children.
Types of Parenting Attitudes
Researchers generally mention four types of parenting styles.
One of the three main styles identified by Baumrind is the authoritarian attitude. In this parenting attitude, children are expected to follow strict rules set by the parents. Failure to follow such rules often results in penalties. Authoritarian parents do not explain the rationale behind these rules. If asked for clarification, the parent can simply reply, “Because I said so.”
Although the demands of these parents are high, they are not very sensitive to their children. He expects his children to act exceptionally and not make mistakes, but gives little guidance on what their children should do or avoid in the future. Mistakes are often punished pretty harshly, but their kids are often left wondering what they did wrong.
According to Baumrind, these parents “focus on obedience and status; they expect their orders to be followed without explanation.” explains as.
Parents who exhibit this attitude are often described as authoritarian and dictatorial. Despite having such strict rules and high expectations, they do little to explain the rationale behind their demands and expect children to obey without question.
Authoritarian (Democratic) Parenting
A second major style identified by Baumrind was the authoritarian style. Like authoritarian parents, those with an authoritarian parenting style establish rules and guidelines that their children are expected to follow. However, this parenting style is much more democratic.
Authoritative parents are sensitive to their children and willing to listen to questions. These parents expect a lot from their children, but provide warmth, feedback and adequate support.
When children fail to meet expectations, these parents are more caring and forgiving than punishing.
It is this combination of expectation and support that helps children of authoritarian parents develop skills such as independence, self-control, and self-regulation.
The final style identified by Baumrind is the parenting attitude known as the permissive parenting style. Permissive parents, sometimes called tolerant parents, make little demands on their children. These parents rarely discipline their children because they have relatively low expectations of maturity and self-control.
Permissive parents often describe themselves as friends with their children rather than in the role of mother or father.
In addition to the three main styles introduced by Baumrind, psychologists Eleanor Maccoby and John Martin have proposed a fourth style known as neglectful parenting. It can be described as making the child feel unwanted by disrupting the health services and having hostile attitudes towards the child. Children who grow up in such families may have thoughts of oppressing the weaker than themselves, hating all around them, not being able to trust anyone, and displaying hostile attitudes towards those around them.
The Effect of Parenting Styles
So what is the effect of these parental attitudes on the child’s developmental outcomes? In addition to Baumrind’s first study with 100 preschoolers, the researchers conducted other studies that led to a number of conclusions regarding the impact of parenting styles on children.
Among the findings of these studies:
The authoritarian parenting attitude often leads to children who are obedient and competent, but are less valued in happiness, social competence, and self-esteem.
The authoritative parenting attitude leads to the emergence of happy, talented and successful children.
Tolerant parenting often results in the development of children with low development in happiness and self-regulation. These children are more likely to have problems with authority and tend to perform poorly in school.
Negligent parenting attitudes rank lowest in all life domains. These children tend to lack self-control and have low self-esteem.
Why does authoritative parenting provide such advantages over other attitudes?
Because authoritative parents are more likely to be seen as fair, their children are more likely to comply with their demands. Also, children are much more likely to internalize these lessons, as these parents provide rules as well as these rules.
Because they fear punishment rather than following rules (as with authoritarian parents), children of authoritarian parents can see why rules exist, understand that they are fair and acceptable, and try to follow those rules to meet those rules. can weigh with his own internalized perception of what is right and wrong.
Different parent attitudes
Of course, individual parents’ parenting attitudes may also differ in each family. For example, the mother may prefer a more authoritarian approach, while the father may display a tolerant style.
This can sometimes lead to mixed signals or situations where a child seeks approval from the more permissive parent to get what they want. To create a cohesive approach to parenting, it is important for parents to learn to cooperate as they combine the various elements of their unique parenting attitudes.