Pacemakers

An adult’s heart must perform 60-100 beats per minute to meet the body’s needs. When the heart rate drops below 40 beats per minute; The patient has symptoms such as dizziness, weakness, fatigue, fainting. There is a small electrical circuit that causes the contraction of the heart muscle. The first electrical impulse in the heart is a lentil-sized structure called the sinus node. It spreads to the right and left ventricles. With this stimulus, the heart muscle contracts and creates a pulse. Rhythm problems occur as a result of interruption or abnormal production in any part of this conduction system.

Pacemakers are small batteries that help maintain the normal rhythm of the heart. They can be temporary or permanent according to the needs of the patients. In cases such as heart attack, electrolyte disorders, drug intoxications, the heart’s electrical system may be affected and the pulse may drop. In this case, a temporary pacemaker is inserted until the picture improves. The procedure is local anesthesia. It is done by placing thin wires called electrodes through the large veins going to the heart under the groin, neck or chest and connecting it to the generator outside the body. When the patient’s own rhythm improves, the wire is removed. Complications such as bleeding and rupture of the heart may develop.

Permanent pacemakers are inserted in cases where the heart rate drops permanently or temporarily, depending on the permanent defects in the electrical system of the heart. Pacemakers constantly monitor the heart rhythm, they step in when the heart rate drops and accelerate the heart rate. Permanent pacemakers can be single-chamber or dual-chamber. The implantation of a single-chamber pacemaker is decided according to the underlying disease of the patient’s low heart rate so that they try to imitate the normal physiology. Permanent pacemaker implantation is required in diseases such as sick sinus syndrome, atrioventricular complete block, low ventricular rate atrial fibrillation, vasovagal syncope. It is done in 60 minutes. Patients are usually discharged one day after the procedure. Complications such as bleeding, infection, and air leakage to the pleura may develop during the procedure. In the medium and long-term, erosion may develop in the battery pocket. In this case, the battery pocket is replaced and the problem is solved. has a lifespan When the battery runs out, only the battery is replaced without touching the wires.

Electroshock devices (implantable cardiac defibrillator) are another type of battery. Patients with heart failure and whose contraction strength of the heart has fallen below 30% are at risk of being lost due to sudden rhythm disturbances. In such patients, electroshock devices save lives. Continuous rhythm monitoring in patients with this device When there is a rhythm disorder, the device corrects the rhythm disorder with shock.

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