Overview of Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD), ie cardiovascular diseases, is the most common cause of death worldwide. Approximately 17.5 million people die each year from CVD. This means 31% of all deaths. (1) Of these, approximately 7.5 million are due to Coronary Vascular Disease and 6.2 million are due to Cerebrovascular Disease (stroke, stroke). (2)

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It is predicted that deaths from CVD, especially Coronary Vascular Diseases and Stroke, will reach 23 million in 2030. (1-3) While deaths from communicable diseases and maternal and child deaths are gradually decreasing with the measures taken, CVD resulting from risk factors such as smoking, unhealthy diet, obesity, physical inactivity, high blood pressure (hypertension), high blood lipids and diabetes are among the causes of death. strengthens its position of being the only leader with each passing day.(3)

High blood pressure (hypertension) causes 9.4 million deaths each year. (4) 51% of deaths due to stroke and 45% of deaths due to coronary artery diseases develop due to hypertension (5)


The term cardiovascular diseases (CVD) refers to diseases of the heart and blood vessels. These diseases are:

one.) Coronary Vascular Diseases(Coronary Heart Disease): Diseases caused by partial or complete obstruction of the vessels feeding the heart muscle.


2.) Cerebrovascular Diseases: Diseases of the blood vessels that feed the brain.


3.) Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Diseases of the blood vessels that feed the arms and legs.


4.) Rheumatic Heart Diseases: Diseases that affect the heart valves and muscles caused by Streptococcal bacteria that cause tonsil infection (tonsillitis).


5.) Congenital Heart Diseases: Structural defects of the heart that are present at birth.


6.) Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism: Diseases caused by blood clots formed in the leg veins (“veins”) and their transport to the heart and lungs.



The most important behavioral risk factors for heart disease and stroke unhealthy diet, sedentary life, smoking and alcohol use is it. These behavioral risk factors related to lifestyle are responsible for 80% of coronary vascular diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. (one)

The effects of these negative lifestyles and habits, high blood pressure ( hypertension), high blood sugar ( diabetes, diabetes), high cholesterol ( hyperlipidemia) and overweight ( obesity ) appears as The presence of these “intermediate risk factors” are considered markers of the development of heart attack, stroke, heart failure and other cardiovascular diseases.

Cessation of tobacco and alcohol use, reducing the amount of salt in the diet, consumption of fruits and vegetables and regular physical activity reduce cardiovascular risk. Prevention and treatment of hypertension, diabetes and high cholesterol significantly reduces cardiovascular risk.

Health policies that create suitable environments and take measures for people to adapt and maintain a healthy lifestyle are also extremely important in reducing societal cardiovascular risk.

There are also factors that we can call the “underlying determinants” of cardiovascular diseases or the “causes of causes” of cardiovascular diseases; globalization, urbanization and population aging.

Other important determinants of cardiovascular diseases are; stress, povertyand geneticare factors.

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The culprit vascular disease that predisposes a person to a heart attack or stroke often has no prior symptoms. A heart attack or stroke may be the first manifestation of the disease.

Heart Attack Symptoms

Pain, pressure, burning or discomfort in the middle of the chest

Pain or discomfort in the arms, left shoulder, elbow, lower jaw, or back

· In addition, shortness of breath, feeling of malaise, nausea-vomiting, cold sweats, pallor or dizziness may often accompany the picture.

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Stroke (Paralysis) Symptoms

The most common symptom of stroke; Sudden onset of weakness in the face, arms or legs, especially in one half of the body.

. Other symptoms are sudden onset;

o Numbness in the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body

o Consciousness changes, difficulty and/or impairment in speaking or understanding spoken words,

o Visual disturbances in one or both eyes

o Difficulty walking, dizziness, balance and coordination disorder

o Headache of unknown cause

o Fainting and loss of consciousness

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rheumatic heart disease
Rheumatic Heart Diseases are the group of diseases that develop as a result of the condition called “rheumatic fever”, which develops after tonsil infection (tonsillitis) caused by Streptococcal bacteria in children, affecting, damaging and disrupting the heart valves and muscles.

Children in countries with low socio-economic status are mostly affected.

Coronary vascular diseases are responsible for 42% of deaths caused by cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases are responsible for 34%, while Rheumatic Heart Diseases are responsible for 2%. (2)

Rheumatic Heart Disease Symptoms:

· Shortness of breath. Palpitations, irregular heartbeats, . chest pain, fainting

Symptoms of Rheumatic Fever are;

· Fire, . Joint pain and swelling. Nausea, stomach aches and vomiting


The disease of each of the structures that make up the anatomy of the heart can be examined under the heading “Heart Diseases”:

A.) Diseases of the Heart Muscle (MIOCARD)

B.) Heart Valve Diseases

C.) Cardiovascular (CORONARY ARTERY) Diseases

D.) Diseases of the Pericardium (PERICARD)

E.) Heart Electrical (Rhythm and ILETY) System Diseases

F.) Diseases of the Great Vessels

G.) Congenital (Congenital) Heart Diseases

G.) Infectious Diseases of the Heart

H.) Tumoral Diseases of the Heart

I.) Involvement of the Heart in Systemic Diseases

J.) Other Organ Diseases and Conditions Affecting the Heart

While these diseases, which we have classified under the main headings, mostly occur for different reasons, sometimes one disease causes the other to occur. For example, occlusion of the heart vessel can lead to dysfunction of the heart muscle, and if these muscles are the muscles to which the valves are attached, it may eventually lead to valve disorders. On the other hand, disorders of the heart valves can lead to heart muscle disease by changing the shape of the heart, enlarging its diameters, and creating an increase in pressure. SUMMARY; These diseases can appear intertwined many times.

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