As in other fields of medicine, tumors form a part of orthopedic surgery. Tumor literally means a newly formed mass in the body. As can be understood from the definition, it has a general meaning. In detail, there are differences in diagnosis and treatment depending on whether the tumor is benign or malignant, or whether it originates from bone tissue or soft tissue. The distinction between good and bad determines the behavior pattern and diffusion character of the audience. Malignant tumors can spread far from their location and cause serious destruction in the surrounding tissue. Another type of orthopedic tumor is the spread of a mass formed in another location to the bone or soft tissue. (Metastases)
Benign Orthopedic Tumors:
They are relatively more common than malignant tumors. Diagnosis and treatment are easy. The most common benign soft tissue tumor is the sebaceous gland (lipoma). They can be seen almost anywhere under the skin. It is painless and mobile to the touch. Although they grow from time to time, they can stay the same size for years. When it grows, it attracts the attention of the patient and applies to the doctor. Diagnosis is easily made with USG or MRI. Taking it is not an absolute necessity, but patients sometimes request it for cosmetic reasons. It is observed that lipomas rarely turn into malignant tumors. There are other benign soft tissue tumors that are very similar to lipomas. Diagnosis and treatment principles are the same.
There are also tumors that are benign but originate from bone or cartilage tissue. Especially those of bone origin are often observed at young ages. They grow with growth and stop when growth ends. Patients apply to the physician with the feeling of a palpable mass or pain. While sometimes even an x-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis, further examinations such as CT and MRI may be requested if necessary. After the initial diagnosis, follow-up and removal of the mass are often performed. These tumors, which are not diagnosed early or neglected, can sometimes cause fractures. (pathological fracture) treatments are different from normal fractures.
Benign tumors are generally easy to diagnose and treat.
First of all, it should be noted that they are seen much less frequently than other types of cancer. According to age groups, certain types of tumors are seen in certain age groups. Diagnosis and treatment are difficult. In particular, a multidisciplinary approach is required in treatment planning. (Medical oncology . Radiation oncology…)
Excision of the mass alone is not sufficient in patients for whom surgical treatment is decided. It should be taken with the surrounding soft tissue and no residue from the tumor should be left. In very advanced stages, it may be necessary to remove the relevant extremity. In recent years, extremity salvage surgeries without removing the problematic arm or leg have become the current treatment method.
In conclusion, orthopedic tumors are problems that should be approached carefully in diagnosis and treatment. They should be kept in mind in routine orthopedic examinations because they are rarely seen and do not occur for any obvious reason. Early diagnosis is the main criterion for success in treatment.